Biographical Sketch of Lazare Carnot

The Science Of Machines:

Summary of *Essai sur les machines en général*

Geometric motions

Moment-of-Momentum

Moment-of-Activity – The concept of work

Practical conclusions

The Development Of Carnot's Mechanics

Argument of the 1778 Memoir on theory of machines

Argument of the 1780 Memoir

Argument of the *Principes fondamentaux de l'équilibre et du mouvement* (1803)

Comparing the work of Sadi Carnot

The Carnot Approach And The Mechanics Of Work And Power, 1803–1829

Early engineering mechanics

Applied mechanics

The concept of work

An Engineering Justification Of Algebra And The Calculus

Geometric analysis and the problem of negative quantity

The compensation of error in infinitesimal analysis

Analysis and synthesis

History And Historiography Sadi Carnot’s Thermodynamics

A historical excursus

On the science of Sadi Carnot’s time: the mechanics

On the science of Sadi Carnot’s time: the theory of heat

Toward physical mathematical theories

A Historiographycal excursus

On Sadi Carnot’s historiography

On the methodology used to investigate Sadi Carnot’s science

On *specificity* and *scientificity* in historical discourse

On *interpretation* in historical discourse

On *categories* in history of science

Biographical sketch of Sadi Carnot

Notes on the philological aspects of *Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu*

On Sadi Carnot’s studies at École Polytechnique

An index ad hoc of *Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu*

On Principles In Sadi Carnot’s Thermodynamics

An outline of the problem of history and logics

On the mathematics

On the physics

On the physics mathematics

On logics and structure

Sadi Carnot’s theory and its logical organization

On DNSs and logical investigation

The distribution of DNSs in Sadi Carnot’s book

The possible theoretical roles played by a DNS

Sadi Carnot’s arguments through his DNSs

Reconstruction of arguments and some cycles of reasoning expressed by DNSs

Sadi Carnot’s thermodynamics as PO theory. Its non–classical logic and its central problem

On Sadi Carnot’s theory: a case–study

Which and how many principles did Sadi Carnot express in his *Réflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu*?

DNSs and mathematics in Sadi Carnot’s theory

Final remarks

What Are The Scientific Roots Of Sadi Carnot’s Cycle?

An outline of the problem

A comparative analysis: Volta’s battery and Sadi Carnot’s heat machine

An analogy between heat fluid and electric fluid

An analogy between the cycle of electric fluid and the cycle on heat states

An analogy between heat work and electrical work

On the analogy between thermodynamics and electrostatics according to Mach’s investigations

Other kind of analogies

On the birth of electricity and thermodynamic theories

On the caloric and entropy

Final remarks

Historical Epistemology Of Thermodynamics. The Mathematics In Sadi Carnot’s Theory

An outline of the problem

A book of physics without mathematics?

The calculations and historical interpretation of the mathematical footnote

The “suppression” of adiabatic curves in Sadi Carnot’s cycle

Why Sadi Carnot “supprime” the adiabatic curves?

A possible solution. Lazare’s synthetic method

The synthetic method in *Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu*

The mathematical character of the footnote

How did Sadi Carnot use his adiabatic equation? A possible calculation

A reflection on modern calculation of efficiency

Final Remarks

Studies And Heritage of *Réflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu*

An outline of the problem

*La théorie analytique de la chaleur*, Reflections on Fourier and Lamé

On Fourier’s *Théorie analytique de la chaleur* (1822)

On Lamé’s *Leçons sur la théorie analytique de la chaleur* (1861)

Final remarks on Fourier and Lamé’s theories

Theoretical advancements on caloric theory in Sadi Carnot’s work

On dynamical effects of heat by Ferdnand Reech (1853)

On cycles and equivalent mechanic of heat

On a comparative analyses between Paul de Saint–Robert’s *Principes de Thermodynamique* (1865) and Sadi Carnot’s *Réflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu* (1824)

On Paul de Saint–Robert

Historical analysis of *Principes de Thermodynamique* (1865)

Final Remarks On The Scientific Relationship between *Père* et *Fils*

An outline of the problem

A hypothesis on structure of scientific parentage

On the lost Newtonian paradigm

On the constraints and production of work

On the *machine en général* and its working substance

On the analogy between hydraulic and heat machines

On the efficiency of a machine

On the impossibility of perpetual motion

On the synthetic method

On the principle of virtual work

On the principle of virtual work and the interactions

On the principle of virtual work and the state equations

Scholars, formulas, experiments and sources cited by Sadi Carnot in his *Works*

On the equivalence of work–heat

On the cycle and reversibility of a machine

Final remarks a mò of conclusions

Appendix to Chapter VII

References

Index.