Preface.- Introduction: The Birth and Growth of a Community by Amy Shell-Gellasch.- History or Heritage? An Important Distinction in Mathematics and for Mathematics Education, by Ivor Grattan-Guinness.- Ptolemy's Mathematical Models and their Meaning, by Alexander Jones.- Mathematics, Instruments and Navigation, 1600-1800, by Jim Bennett.- Was Newton's Calculus a Dead End? The Continental Influence of Maclaurin's Treatise of Fluxions, byJudith V. Grabiner.- The Mathematics and Science of Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), by Ruediger Thiele.- Mathematics in Canada before 1945: A Preliminary Survey by Thomas Archibald and Louis Charbonneau.- The Emergence of the American Mathematical Research Community, by Karen Hunger Parshall.- 19th Century Logic Between Philosophy and Mathematics, by Volker Peckhaus.- The Battle for Cantorian Set Theory, by Joseph W. Dauben.- Hilbert and his Twenty-Four Problems, by Ruediger Thiele.- Turing and the Origins of AI, by Stuart Shanker.- Mathematics and Gender: Some Cross-Cultural Observations, by Ann Hibner Koblitz.