You are here

Index to Mathematical Treasures

Convergence's "Mathematical Treasures" are images of mathematical objects and of selected pages of mathematical manuscripts and texts from various libraries, museums, and private collections. Click on the name of the document or object to go to the image(s), where more information is provided. The images in this collection are intended for your use in the classroom; for all other purposes, please obtain permission from the library, museum, or holder of the item(s) photographed. Note that the index is alphabetical by surname or single name of the author, if known. Some of the oldest and most interesting documents and objects are those with "Anonymous" authors or creators. Four large collections have their own indices in addition to being included in the general index below:

Acknowledgements for all of the institutions and individuals who supplied images are provided at the bottom of this page. For an introduction to classroom use of images, see the article, "Pantas’ Cabinet of Mathematical Wonders: Images and the History of Mathematics," by Convergence co-founding editor and "chief treasure hunter," Frank J. Swetz. For additional suggestions on teaching mathematics with objects and images of objects, see "Online Museum Collections in the Mathematics Classroom," by Amy Ackerberg-Hastings and Amy Shell-Gellasch.

A  -  B  -  C  -  D  -  E  -  F-G-H  -  I-J-K  -   L  -  M-N  -  O-P-Q  -  R  -  S  -  T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Author Title Date
Abel, Niels Henrik Abhandlungen über der Algebraische Auflösung der Gleichungen (3 images) 1889 (originals 1824-1829)
Abel, Niels Henrik Complete Works (3 images) 1839
Academy of Sciences (France) Annual Report (5 images) 1693
Adrain, Robert Hutton's Course of Mathematics (3rd American ed., 8 images) 1818 (1st American edition 1812)
Agnesi, Maria Gaetana Instituzioni analitiche (8 images; see also these 7 images) 1748
Agnesi, Maria Gaetana Analytical Institutions, trans. John Colson (6 images) 1801
Airy, George Biddell On the Algebra and Numerical Theory of Errors of Observation (3 images) 1861
Al-‘Āmilī, Bahāʾ al-dīn Quintessence of Calculation (4 images) ca 1600
Alberti, Giuseppe Instruzione per l'Ingenero 1774
Alberti, Leon Battista Methods for Measuring Heights (4 images) 15th century
Al-Bukhārī al-Kalabādhī, Shams al-dīn Maḥmūd ibn Abī Bakr Manual of Inheritance Law (3 images) 13th century
Alexander, Johann Synopsis algebraica 1693
Algarotti, Francesco Il newtonianismo per le dame (2 images) 1737
Al-Jazarī, Ramaḍān ibn Abī Hurayrah Explanation of the Abridgement on Calculus ca 1675
Al-Khwārizmī, Muḥammad Algebra (Original dates to ~825)
Al-Rasmuki, Ahmad ibn Sulayman Explanation of Arithmetic (3 images) early 17th century
Al-Ṭajibī (or al-Ṭujībī), Abū ʻUthmān Geometry treatise (4 images) 13th century
Al-Ṭūsī, Nasīr al-dīn Commentary on Euclid's Elements (13th century original)
Al-Ṭūsī, Nasīr al-dīn Al-Ṭūsī's Euclid's Elements (5 images) (13th century original)
Amsler, Jacob Polar planimeter 1880s
Anonymous Antichissimo di algorismo (2 images) 14th century
Anonymous Arithmetica Pratica (in Italian, 3 images) 1575
Anonymous Austrian measuring rod 1732
Anonymous Austrian weights 18th century
Anonymous Bakhshali Manuscript 2nd C. BCE - 10th C. CE
Anonymous Cambodian (Khmer) zero (3 images) 683 CE
Anonymous Cambridge Problems 1801-1820 (3 images) 1836
Anonymous Chinese abacus ca 1925
Anonymous Codex Mexicanus of the Maya 1814 (12th cent. original)
Anonymous Codex Vergara of the Aztec (3 images) 1539
Anonymous Counting board (2 images) 16th century
Anonymous Egyptian student's math tablet 5th or 6th centuries
Anonymous English gauger's scale 18th century
Anonymous English tally sticks (5 images) 1296
Anonymous Fiore de ragione (Flower of Reason, 5 images) ca 1538-1638
Anonymous German Geometria (10 images) 18th century
Anonymous German protractor 1700
Anonymous God, the Supreme Geometer 13th century
Anonymous Gunther quadrant 17th century
Anonymous Inca quipus (4 images) ca 1400-1650
Anonymous Ishango Bone 20,000 - 25,000 years ago
Anonymous Islamic astronomical chart 15th century
Anonymous Italian armillary sphere 1550
Anonymous Italian compass 15th century
Anonymous Japanese protractor 1876
Anonymous Jinkō-ki (Large and Small Numbers, 3 images) 1715, 1818 (original 1627)
Anonymous Korean sangi rods (2 images) 19th century
Anonymous Mesopotamian accounting tokens
(6 images)
ca 4000 - 3100 BCE
Anonymous Mesopotamian square root table ca 1999-1800 BCE
Anonymous Moffett Register for Recording Alcohol Sales 1877
Anonymous Old Babylonian area calculation (3 images) ca 1800 - 1600 BCE
Anonymous Old Babylonian scribal exercises (4 images) ca 1800 - 1600 BCE
Anonymous Old Babylonian tablet (Plimpton 322) ca 1850 BCE
Anonymous Old Babylonian tablet (YBC 7289) ca 1800 - 1600 BCE
Anonymous Old Babylonian tablets (3 images) ca 1990 - 1700 BCE
Anonymous Practica geometriae (3 images) 13th century
Anonymous Roman Empire road map (Peutinger map) 1265 (originals from 1st cent. BCE)
Anonymous Roman hand abacus 1st century
Anonymous Tomb of Menna, Egypt 1420–1411 BCE
Anonymous Treviso Arithmetic 1478
Anonymous Zhoubi suanjing (2 images) 1603 (original from 100 BCE)
Anonymous Zibaldone da Canal (Canal's Notebook) 14th century
Apianus, Petrus
(Peter Apian)
Cosmographia (10 images) 1545 (1524 orginal)
Apianus, Petrus Instrumentum primi mobilis 1534
Apianus, Petrus Introductio geographica 1534
Apollonius Conics (Halley's translation, 2 images) 1710
Arbuthnot, John Essay on Usefulness of Mathematical Learning (3rd ed., 3 images) 1745 (original 1701)
Archimedes Archimedes Palimpsest (6 images) 10th century (3rd cent. BCE originals)
Archimedes On Curved Surfaces (3 images) ca. 1350-1372 (3rd cent. BCE original)
Archimedes Works of Archimedes, by Piero della Francesca (11 images) late 1450s
Archimedes Commandino's Archimedes 1558
Archimedes Archimedes in Greek and Latin (2 images) 1676
Ayala, Manuel Elementos de matematicas (7 images) 1832
Back to top    
Babbage, Charles Difference Engine (2 images) 1853
Babbage, Charles Tables of Logarithms (4 images) 1872 (original 1827)
Bachet, Claude Mathematical Recreations (4 images) 1612
Bachet, Claude Arithmetic of Diophantus (in Latin, with conjectures of Fermat, 3 images) 1670 (original 1621)
Bacon, Roger Specula mathematica (4 images) 1614 (13th cent. original)
Barozzi, Francesco Procli Diadochi (Proclus' Commentary on Euclid's Elements, 2 images) 1560 (5th cent. original)
Barrow, Isaac Geometrical Lectures 1735 edition
Barrow, Isaac Euclid's Elements (2 images) 1665
Barrow, Isaac Archimedes and Apollonius 1675
Barrow, Isaac The Usefulness of Mathematics Learning (2 images) 1734 (original 1685)
Benedetto da Firenze Trattato d'arismetriche ca 1460
Berkeley, George Arithmeticae 1707/1871
Berkeley, George Miscellanea Mathematica 1707/1871
Berkeley, George The Analyst (7 images) 1734/1871
Berkeley, George A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics 1735/1871
Berkeley, George A Defence of Free-Thinking (4 images) 1735
Berman, Michael Model of Elongated Pentagonal Pyramid mid-20th century
Bernays and Hilbert Mathematischen Wissenschaften (2 images) 1939
Bernoulli, Daniel Hydrodynamica (2 images) 1738
Bernoulli, Jakob Ars Conjectandi 1713
Bernoulli, Jakob Collected Works (3 images) 1744
Bernoulli, Johann Correspondence with Leibniz (7 images) 1694–1699 (published 1745)
Bernoulli, Johann Opera Omnia, Vol. I (1690-1713) (6 images) 1742
Bettini, Mario Aerarium philosophiae mathematicae (5 images) 1648
Bézout, Étienne First Principles of the Differential and Integral Calculus (English translation, 2 images) 1824 (original 1764-1767)
Bézout, Étienne Elementary Treatise on Application of Algebra to Geometry (2nd ed., 4 images; see also these 5 images) 1826 (original 1820)
Bhaskara Lilavati (2 images) 1650
Billingsley, Henry Euclid's Elements (3 images) 1570
Blagrave, John Mathematical Jewel 1585
Blondel, Francois Problems from Architecture (2 images) 1676
Boeschenstein, Johann Ain neu geordnet Rechenbiechlin (3 images) 1514
Boethius The Arithmetic (2 images) ca 1000 CE (original ca 500)
Boethius The Arithmetic (2 images) 1294 manuscript
Boethius Liber circuli 1503
Bolyai, János Euclid's 5th postulate (7 images) 1896 (1st ed. 1891, original 1832)
Bolzano, Bernard Three Problems 1817
Bonnycastle, John Introduction to Algebra (4 images) 1811 (original 1782)
Bonnycastle, John The Scholar's Guide to Arithmetic (3 images) 1815 (original 1780)
Bonvicino, Valeriano Mathematics for a Military Academy (5 images) 1665
Boole, George An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (3 images) 1854
Boole, George Calculus of Finite Differences (3rd ed., 2 images) 1880 (original 1859)
Boole, George Differential Equations (2 images) 1877 (original 1859)
Bordazar de Artazu, Antonio Spanish Commercial Arithmetic (8 images) 1736
Borel, Emile Elements of Set Theory (2 images) 1949
Borghi, Piero Qui comenza la nobel opera de arithmetic (9 images) 1484
Bossut, Charles Traite elementaire de geometrie (6 images) 1775
Bossut, Charles General History of Mathematics (English translation by John Bonnycastle, 3 images) 1803
Bouvet, J., and J.F. Gerbillon Ji he yuan ben (Elements of Geometry, 3 images) 1690s
Bowditch, Nathaniel Celestial Mechanics (5 images) 1818/1829
Brahe, Tycho Astronomiae instauratae (2 images) 1602
Brahe, Tycho

Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata
(3 images)
De mundi aetherei recentioribus phaenomenis
(2 images)

Braikenridge, William Exercitatio geometrica (4 images) 1733
Briggs, Henry Arithmetica logarithmica (3 pages) 1624
Briot, Charles and Bouquet, Claude Leçons de Géometrie Analytic (6 images) 1875
Brugsch, Henrich Ancient Egyptian Numbers (2 images) 1849
Buot, Jacques Introduction aux Mathematiques (6 images) ca 1675
Butterfield, Michael Protractor, set square, and sector (2 images) ca 1750
Byerly, William Elwood Byerly’s Differential Calculus for Harvard Students (5 images) 1888
Byrne, Oliver Short Practical Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry (8 images) 1835
Byrne, Oliver Elements of Euclid (3 images; see also these 5 images and these 4 images) 1847
Back to top    
Cajori, Florian History of ... Limits and Fluxions (5 images) 1919OK
Campanus, Johannes Euclid's Elements (Ratdolt ed. of Campanus translation, 10 images; see also these 4 images) 1482 (13th cent. trans.)
Campanus, Johannes Euclid's Elements (Luca Pacioli ed., 7 images; see also these 7 images) 1509 (13th cent. trans.)
Canal Zibaldone da Canal (Canal's Notebook) 14th century
Cantor, Georg Ueber trigonometrische Reihen (On trigonometric series, complete paper: 6 images) 1871
Cantor, Moritz Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik (Lectures on the History of Mathematics, 9 images) 1880-1908
Cardano, Gerolamo Ars Magna (1 image; see also these 4 images) 1545
Cardano, Gerolamo Acceptance of Ptolemy's Astrology 1554
Cardano, Gerolamo Practica Arithmetice (5 images) 1539
Carroll, Lewis Review of Formulae of Plane Trigonometry 1861
Carroll, Lewis Euclid and His Rivals (2 images) 1879
Carroll, Lewis A Tangled Tale (5 images) 1885
Carnot, Lazare Géométrie de position (3 images) 1803
Catena, Pietro Aristotelian Logic in Arithmetic (4 images) 1556
Cataneo, Pietro Practice of Two Primary Mathematics (4 images) 1559
Cauchy, Augustin-Louis Cours d'Analyse (3 images) 1821
Cauchy, Augustin-Louis Leçons sur le Calcul Différentiel 1829
Cauchy, Augustin-Louis Complete Works of Augustin Cauchy, Vol. V 1885
Cayley, Arthur Elliptic Functions (4 images) 1876
Chambers, Ephraim Cyclopaedia (English, 2nd ed., 5 images) 1738 (original 1728)
Chasles, Michel Géométrie Supérieure (Higher Geometry, 4 images) 1880 (original 1852)
du Châtelet, Émilie Institutions de Physique (10 images) 1741 (original 1740)
du Châtelet, Émilie Principes Mathématiques (5 images) 1759
Chebyshev, Pafnuty Lvovich Collected Works (8 images) 1899
Child Guidance Toys Add-A-Count Scale (for teaching arithmetic) 1950s
Clavius, Christopher Opera mathematica (2 images) 1612
Clavius, Christopher Theodosii Tripolitae Sphaericorum Libri III 1586
Clavius, Christopher Gnomonices Libri Octo 1587
Clavius, Christopher Tractatus de Sphaera (by Johannes de Sacro Bosco) 1596
Clavius, Christopher Algebra (6 images) 1608
Clavius, Christopher Epitome arithmetica practica (2 images) 1584
Clavius, Christopher Euclidis elementorum (2 images) 1574
Clavius, Christopher Euclidis posteriores (2 images) 1654 (original 1607)
Clavius, Christopher Yuan rong jioa yi (Treatise on Geometry, 7 images) 1847 (original trans. 1614, orig. 1574)
Clebsch, Alfred Vorlesungen über geometrie (3 images) 1876
Cocker, Edward Decimal Arithmetick 1685
Coets, Henrik Arithmetica Practica (6 images) 1698
Collins, John Letter on 'Defects in Algebra' (5 images) 1684
Commandino, Federico Commandino's Archimedes (6 images) 1558
Commandino, Federico Commandino's Archimedes (2 images) 1558
Comte, Augustus Philosophy of Mathematics (6 images) 1855
Copernicus, Nicolaus De revolutionibus (9 images) 1566 (1543 original)
Cort, Cornelius Engravings of Arithmetica and Geometria (2 images) 1565
Coutereels, Jan Cyffer-Boek (11 images) 1690
Cowley, John Lodge An Illustration and Mensuration of Solid Geometry (7 images) 1787 (1758 original)
Back to top    
da Vinci, Leonardo Sketches for Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione (15 images) 1509
Darboux, Gaston Theory of Surfaces 1887
Darboux, Gaston Systèmes Orthogonaux et les Coordonnées Curvilignes 1910 (1898 original)
Daries (or Darjes), Joachim Georg Ground of all Mathematics (4 images) 1757
Davies, Charles American Textbooks (8 images) 1826-1840
Davies, Charles Geometry and Trigonometry (5 images) 1848 (original 1834)
Davies, Charles Elements of Descriptive Geometry (4 images) 1839 (original 1826)
Davies, Charles Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus (3 images) 1840 (original 1836)
Davies, Charles Elements of Algebra (1 image) 1840
Davies, Charles The Logic and Utility of Mathematics (6 images) 1869 (original 1850)
Day, Jeremiah Introduction to Algebra (2 images) 1834 (original 1814)
de Witt, Jan Elements of Curves (5 images) 1683
De Lagny Arithmetic and Algebra (2 images) 1697
De Moivre, Abraham Annuities on Lives (3 images) 1752 (original 1725)
De Moivre, Abraham Doctrine of Chances (2 images) 1756 (original 1711)
De Morgan, Augustus Elements of Arithmetic (5th ed., 6 images) 1858 (original 1830)
De Morgan, Augustus On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics 1831
De Morgan, Augustus Elementary Illustrations of the Differential and Integral Calculus (4 images) 1899 (original 1832)
De Morgan, Augustus Elements of Algebra (4 images) 1835
De Morgan, Augustus An Essay on Probabilities (3 images) 1838
De Morgan, Augustus An Essay on Probabilities and their Application to Life Contingencies and Insurance Offices (6 images) 1838
De Morgan, Augustus Differential and Integral Calculus (4 images) 1842
De Morgan, Augustus Letter to Indologist H. H. Wilson (4 images) 1843
De Morgan, Augustus Formal Logic (4 images) 1847
De Morgan, Augustus Trigonometry and Double Algebra (10 images) 1849
De Morgan, Augustus Syllabus of a Proposed System of Logic (3 images) 1860
De Morgan, Augustus Student's drawing of De Morgan 1865
De Morgan, Augustus Visiting card with photograph ca 1866
De Morgan, Augustus Budget of Paradoxes (2 images) 1872
de Savonne, Pierre L'Arithmetique (7 images) 1630
de Ville Dei, Alexandre Carmen de Algorism (2 images) ca 1240
Dedekind, Richard Essays on the Theory of Numbers (2 images) 1909
della Francesca, Piero Works of Archimedes (11 images) late 1450s
Desargues, Girard Universal Way of Dyaling 1659
Descartes, René Discourse on Method 1637
Descartes, René Geometria (in Latin, 3 images) 1659
Descartes, René Principia philosophiae (2 images) 1644
Descartes, René Lettres (1 image) 1663-1667
Dickson, Leonard Eugene Algebraic Invariants (3 images) 1914
Diez (Freyle), Juan Sumario Compendioso (in Spanish) 1556
Digges, Leonard and Thomas Stratioticos (6 images) 1579
Digges, Leonard Tectonicon  (4 images) 1556/1634
Digges, Thomas Pantometria (3 images) 1571
Dilworth, Thomas Schoolmaster's Assistant (1st American ed., 6 images) 1773
Dirichlet, Lejeune Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie (Lectures on Number Theory, 4 images) 1863
Dodgson, Charles Review of Formulae of Plane Trigonometry 1861
Dodgson, Charles Euclid and His Rivals (2 images) 1879
Dodgson, Charles Lewis Carroll’s A Tangled Tale (5 images) 1885
Duncan, William Elements of Logic (3 images) 1811 (original 1748)
Dürer, Albrecht Treatise on Mensuration (4 images) 1538
Back to top    
Emerson, William Treatise of Algebra (5 images) 1764
van Etten, Henry (Hendrik) Mathematicall Recreations (3rd English ed., 2 images) 1674 (1st English ed. 1633, 1624 French original)
Euclid Euclid Prop. II.5 on papyrus (in Greek) 1st century CE (original ca 300 BCE)
Euclid Elements: Late 13th century manuscript (5 images) 1294
Euclid Elements: Nasīr al-dīn al-Ṭūsī commentary (13th century original)
Euclid Elements: 14th century manuscript (3 images) 1390
Euclid Elements: Ratdolt edition of Campanus translation (10 images; see also these 4 images) 1482 (13th cent. trans.)
Euclid Elements of Euclid: Luca Pacioli (7 images; see also these 7 images) 1509
Euclid Elements: Henry Billingsley edition (2 images) 1570
Euclid Elements in Greek and Latin (3 images) 1573
Euclid Elements: Christopher Clavius edition (2 images) 1574
Euclid Elements in Arabic (4 images) 1594
Euclid Elements: Ricci and Xu edition (7 images) 1847 (1614 original)
Euclid Elements: Isaac Barrow ediiton (2 images) 1665
Euclid Elements: Gerbillon & Bouvet ed. (3 images) 1690s
Euclid Elements: Oliver Byrne's edition (3 images) 1847
Euler, Leonhard Algebra (in French) 1795 (1770 original)
Euler, Leonhard Algebra (in English, 4 images) 1828 (1770 original)
Euler, Leonhard Calculus of Variations 1744
Euler, Leonhard Analysis of the Infinite (4 images) 1748
Euler, Leonhard Integral Calculus (3 images) 1768
Euler, Leonhard Commentationes Arithmeticae (3 images) 1849
Eyre, John The Exact Surveyor (2 images) 1654
Back to top    
A. W. Faber (later Faber-Castell) Simplex Mannheim slide rule 1900–1908
Farrar, John Lacroix's Algebra (3 images) 1825
Farrar, John An Elementary Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, and on the Application of Algebra to Geometry; from the Mathematics of Lacroix and Bézout (5 images; see also these 4 images) 1833 (original 1820)
Faulhaber, Johann Academia Algebrae (2 images) 1631
Feliciano, Francisco Libro di Arithmetica i Geometria (3 images) 1536
Felter, Stoddard A. Felter's First Lessons in Numbers (17 images) 1865
Fenn, Joseph New and Complete System of Algebra (2 images) 1767
Fenn, Joseph History of Mathematics for a School (2 images) 1768
Fermat, Pierre de Oeuvres de Fermat, Vol. I (ed. Paul Tannery and Charles Henry, 3 images) 1891
Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa) Liber abaci (ed. Baldassarre Boncompagni, 7 images) 1857 (original 1202)
Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa) Practica Geometriae (ed. Baldassarre Boncompagni, 3 images) 1857 (original 13th century)
Field, William Hinged parallel rule 1854/1923
Fine, Oronce Protomathesis (3 images) 1532
Fine, Oronce Geometry 1551
Fine, Oronce World Map 1534
Fine, Oronce Le sphere du monde manuscript (3 images) 1549
Fine, Oronce Le sphere du monde (3 images) 1551
Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer R. A. Fisher’s Statistics Books (6 images) 1938
Fludd, Robert History of the Macrocosm (3 images) 1618
Francesca, Piero della Works of Archimedes (11 images) late 1450s (originals 3rd cent. BCE)
Fraser, Alexander The Works of George Berkeley (The Analyst, 7 images) 1734/1871
Frisius, Gemma Arithmeticae methodus facilis (3 images) 1540
Frisius, Gemma Cosmographia Petri Apiani (10 images) 1645 (1624 original)
Galilei, Galileo Siderius nuncius (2 images) 1610
Galilei, Galileo Two New Sciences (3 images) 1638
Galilei, Galileo Geometrical Compass (2 images) 1640
Galilei, Galileo Opere (Collected Works, 2 images) 1656
Galois, Évariste Abhandlungen über der Algebraische Auflösung der Gleichungen (3 images) 1889 (originals 1828-1832)
Garfield, James A. Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem (8 images) 1876
Gerbillon, J.F., and J. Bouvet Ji he yuan ben (Elements of Geometry, 3 images) 1690s
Ghaligai, Francesco Practica d'Arithmetica (3 images) 1552
Gibbs, Josiah Willard Wilson's Vector Analysis (5 images) 1901
Gill, Charles Mathematical Miscellany (3 images) 1836
Green, George Mathematical Papers (2 images) 1871
Green, Joshua U.S. College Mathematics (copybooks, 6 images) 1782
Gregory, David Commentary on Euclid's Elements (2 images) 1703
Gregory, Olinthus Mathematics for the Practical Man (6 images) 1836 (original 1825)
Grunow, William and Julius Grunow spherometer 1860s
Gunter, Edmund Description and Use of the Sector, Cross-staff and other Instruments (3 images) 1636 (original 1624)
Halley, Edmund Conics of Apollonius (2 images) 1710
Hamilton, William Rowan Elements of Quaternions (3 images) 1866
Hankel, Hermann History of Mathematics 1874
Harriot, Thomas Artis analyticae praxis (2 images) 1631
Hatton, Edward Mathematical Manual (6 images) 1728
Henry, Charles, and Paul Tannery Oeuvres de Fermat, Vol. I (3 images) 1891
Heuraet, Hendrick van Rectification of Curves (3 images) 1659
Hewlett-Packard HP28S Handheld Electronic Calculator 1988
Hilbert and Bernays Mathematischen Wissenschaften (2 images) 1939
Hill, Francis George Development of Arabic Numerals in Europe (3 images) 1915
Hill, John Arithmetick Both in the Theory and Practice (4 images) 1772 (11th ed.)
Hill, Thomas Key-driven adding machine (patent model) 1857
Hojiroya Shōeman Japanese temple sangaku 1854
Honoratus Opus arithmetica (2 images) ca 1560
Hosaka Nobuyoshi Japanese temple sangaku 1800
Houghton Mifflin Company Number line ca 1972
Henry Hughes & Son Captain Field's Improved Hinged Parallel Rule 1923
von Humboldt, Alexander Codex Mexicanus of the Maya 1814 (12th cent. original)
Hutton, Charles Tracts on (Applied) Mathematical Subjects (2 images) 1812
Hutton, Charles Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary (7 images) 1815
Hutton, Charles Course of Mathematics (3rd American ed., 8 images) 1818 (1st Am. ed. 1812)
Huygens, Christiaan De circuli magnitude inventa 1654
Huygens, Christiaan Traite de la Lumiere (Treatise on Light, 3 images) 1690
Back to top    
Iamblichus the Chaldaean Greek translation of the Introduction to Arithmetic of Nicomachus of Gerasa (4 images) 1668 Latin translation of 3rd century original 
Ibn al-Bannāʾ, Abū'l Abbās Ahmad Lifting of the Veil in the Operations of Calculation (Arabic) 18th cent. copy of ca 1500 commentary on ca 1300 original
Ibn al-Hāʼim, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Kitāb al-nuzah (Book of Delights) (3 images) 1506-07 copy of ca 1400 original
Ibn Gāzī, Muhammad The Craving of the Calculators (Arabic) 18th cent. copy of ca 1500 commentary on ca 1300 original
Ibn Gāzī, Muhammad Desire of the Students for an Explanation of the Calculator’s Craving (Arabic) 18th cent. copy of ca 1500 commentary on ca 1300 original
Jacob, Simon Rechenbuch (7 images) 1565/1599
Jacobi, Carl Opuscula mathematica (Vol. I, 5 images) 1846
Jamnitzer, Wenzel Perspectiva corporum regularium (Platonic solids, 11 images) 1568
Jefferson, Thomas Construction of Octagon 18th-19th centuries
Jess, Zachariah, et al American Tutor's Assistant (2nd ed., 3 images)

1794 (1st ed. 1791)

Jevons, William Stanley Pure Logic or the Logic of Quality Apart from Quantity (4 images) 1864
Jevons, William Stanley Logic piano (mechanical computer) 1869
Johnson, Crockett Mathematical paintings 1965 and 1968
Jordanus de Nemore Arithmetica (13th century original)
Jordanus de Nemore De triangulis (3 images) 14th century or later (13th century original)
Jullien, A. Models for Descriptive Geometry (2 images) ca 1880
Kästner, Abraham Foundations of Mathematics (in German) 1764
Keckermann, Bartholomäus Compendium of Mathematics (3 images) 1661 (original 1603)
Kepler, Johann Mysterium cosmographicum (2 images) 1596
Kepler, Johann Astronomia nova (3 images) 1609
Kepler, Johann Strena seu de Nive Sexangular (3 images) 1611
Kepler, Johann Rudolphine Tables 1627
Kepler, Johann Uralten messekunst Archimedes 1616
Kepler, Johann Epitome of Copernican Astronomy (2 images) 1619
Kepler, Johann Harmonices mundi (Harmony of the Worlds, 11 images) 1619
Kepler, Johann Chilias Logarithmoria 1624
Khayyam, Omar Algebra (Original dates to ~1100)
Keuffel & Esser Trammel Ellipsograph ca 1930
Kidjel, Maurice Proportional dividers ca 1962
Klein, Felix Nicht-Euklidische Geometrie (Non-Euclidean Geometry, 3 images) 1892-1893
Klein, Felix Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry (2 images) 1897
Klein, Felix Mathematischen Wissenschaften (2 images) 1924
Köbel, Jacob Geometry (4 images) 1608
Back to top    
Lacroix, Sylvestre Textbooks of Sylvestre Lacroix (1795-1826) 1795-1826
Lacroix, Sylvestre Traité élémentaire d'Arithmétique (9th ed., 2 images) 1810 (1st ed. 1797)
Lacroix, Sylvestre Élémens de Géométrie descriptive (3rd ed., 3 images) 1808 (1st ed. 1795)
Lacroix, Sylvestre Élémens d'Algèbre (9th ed., 2 images; see also these 5 images from the 1825 14th ed.) 1811 (1st ed. 1800)
Lacroix, Sylvestre Élémens de Géométrie (6th ed., 3 images) 1810 (1st ed. 1799)
Lacroix, Sylvestre Differential and Integral Calculus (1st English ed., 5 images) 1816 (1st French ed. 1802)
Lacroix, Sylvestre Calculus of Probability (2 images) 1816
Lacroix, Sylvestre Elementary Treatise on Plain and Spherical Trigonometry (2nd ed., 4 images; see also these 5 images) 1826 (1st ed. 1820)
Lacroix, Sylvestre Algebra (in English, 3 images) 1825
Lacroix, Sylvestre Essais sur l’enseignement en général: et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier (4th ed., 3 images) 1838 (1st ed. 1805)
Lagrange, Louis Analytical Mechanics (2 images) 1788
Lagrange, Joseph-Louis Théorie des Fonctions Analytiques (3 images) 1813 (original 1797)
Langlois, Claude Set square ca 1750
Laplace, Pierre-Simon Celestial Mechanics (5 images) 1799/1818/1829
Laplace, Pierre-Simon École Polytechnique mathematics curriculum (3 images) 1812
Laplace, Pierre-Simon Celestial Mechanics (in English, 2 images) 1831
Lauremberg, Johannes Wilhelm Gromaticae Liber Tres (2 images) 1640
LeDuke, John Arithmetical Questions (3 images) 1663
Legendre, Adrien-Marie Essai sur la Théorie des Nombres (4 images) 1808
Le Gendre, François L'Arithmetique en sa Perfection (6 images) 1690 (original 1657)
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Dissertation de Arte Combinatoria (2 images) 1666
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Stepped Reckoner 1671
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Letter to Christiaan Huygens (2 images) 1674 (published 1859)
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's Papers on Calculus 1684-1693
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Nova methodus pro maximis et minimis ... (differential calculus, complete text, 10 images) 1684
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm De geometria recondite et analysi indivisibilium atque infinitorum ... (integral calculus, complete text, 11 images) 1686
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Supplementum geometrie dimensore ... (Fundamental Theorem, complete text, 10 images) 1693
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Correspondence with Johannes Bernoulli (7 images) 1694–1699 (published 1745)
Leonardo da Vinci Sketches for Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione (15 images) 1509
Leurechon (or Leurochon), Jean

Leurechon's Mathematicall Recreations (1st English ed., 3 images)

1633 (1st French ed. 1624, 1st English ed. 1633)
Leurechon (or Leurochon), Jean

Mathematicall Recreations (3rd English ed., 2 images)

1674 (1st French ed. 1624, 1st English ed. 1633)
l'Hospital, Guillaume Francois de Analyse des Infiniment Petits (5 images) 1696
l'Hospital, Guillaume Francois de Traité Analytique des Sections Coniques (7 images) 1776
Li Shanlan and Alexander Wylie A New Mathematics Curriculum for China (10 images) 1853/1859
Lie, Marius Sophus, et al First Scandinavian Mathematics Journal (4 images) 1876
Lindemann, Ferdinand Clebsch's Vorlesungen über geometrie (3 images) 1876
Liu Hui Jiuzhang suanshu 1603 (original from ca 250 CE)
Lobachevski, Nikolai Geometric Researches on the Theory of Parallels (3 images) 1914 (1891 trans. from 1840 German)
Loomis, Elias Elements of Analytical Geometry and Differential and Integral Calculus (4 images) 1858 (original 1835)
Lowthorp, John The Philosophical Transactions and Collections, to the Year 1700 (4 images) 1731 (original 1655-1700)
Lucas, Edouard Lucas’s Theory of Numbers (6 images) 1891
Luders, Theodoric Traité Mathematique (3 images) 1680
Louys, Sebastianus David Gheometria oft de konste van Landt te meten 1681
Back to top    
Mach, Ernst Space and Geometry (2 images) 1906
Maclaurin, Colin Treatise of Fluxions (4 images) 1742
Maclaurin, Colin Treatise on Fluxions (2nd ed., 8 images) 1801 (original 1742)
Malcolm, Alexander New Treatise of Arithmetick and Book-keeping (3 images) 1718
Malcolm, Alexander New System of Arithmetick (3 images) 1730
Maseres, Francis Doctrine of Permutations and Combinations (3 images; see also these 3 images) 1795
Mayer, Tobias Mathematischer Atlas (4 images) 1745
McMillan, Loraine Number line by 1972
Metius, Adrian (Adriaan Adriaanszoon) Arithmetica et Geometriae (3 images) 1626
Michael of Rhodes Journal or Book (5 images) 1434
Minkowski, Hermann Collected Papers (in German, 7 images) 1911
Mobius, August Ferdinand Calculus of Centers of Gravity (1 image) 1827
Monge, Gaspard Application de l’Analyse a la Géométrie (2 images) 1809 (original 1807)
Montucla, Jean-Étienne Histoire des Recherches sur la Quadratur du Cercle (3 images) 1831 (original 1754)
Moore, Jonas Arithmetick in Four Books (5 images) 1650/1688
Moore, Jonas New Systeme of Mathematicks (5 images) 1681
Moxon, Joseph Mathematical Dictionary, or Mathematicks Made Easy (2 images) 1679
Napier, John Mirifici logarithmorum (3 images) 1614
Napier, John Rabdologiae (6 images) 1617
National Cash Register Company Class 3000 Bookkeeping Machine 1938
Newcomb, Simon American Journal of Mathematics (6 images) 1878
Newton, Isaac Collected Works (5 images) 1779
Newton, Isaac Method of Fluxions (5 images) 1736
Newton, Isaac Principia Mathematica (3 images; see also these 3 images) 1714 (original 1687)
Newton, Isaac Principia Mathematica (English translation by Andrew Motte, 12 images) 1846 (original 1729)
Newton, Isaac Principes Mathématiques (French translation by Émilie du Châtelet, 5 images) 1759 (original 1687)
Nicomachus of Gerasa Introduction to Pythagorean Arithmetic (Greek, 2 images) 14th cent. copy (2nd cent. original)
Nicomachus of Gerasa Introduction to Arithmetic (4 images) 1668 Latin trans. of 3rd cent. Greek trans. of 2nd cent. original
Nilakantha Somayaji Tantrasangraha 1501
Back to top    
Ockerlund, Nels Combination ruler, protractor, and calculating device 1870
Osborne, Thomas Treatise on Arithmetic (11 images) 1602
Oughtred, William Clavis mathematicae (3 images) 1667 (original 1631)
Oughtred, William Euclidis declaratio (Euclid Clarified, 2 images) 1662
Oughtred, William The Key to the Mathematicks (English translation of Clavis mathematicae, 11 images) 1647
Ozanam, Jacques Cours de mathematique (6 images of French original and 6 images of English translation) 1693 (1712 translation)
Ozanam, Jacques Récréations mathématiques et physiques (3 images) 1698 (1694 original)
Pacioli, Luca De divina proportione (Da Vinci's illustrations of Platonic solids, 15 images; see also these 2 images and these 3 images and these 3 images) 1509
Pacioli, Luca Elements of Euclid (7 images; see also these 7 images) 1509
Pacioli, Luca Summa de arithmetica, geometria, ... (5 images; see also these 5 images) 1494
Pardie, Ignace Gaston Elements de geometrie (in Chinese, 3 images) 1690s (original 1671)
Pascal, Blaise Pascal's Calculator, or Pascaline 1645
Paul, Jeremiah, et al American Tutor's Assistant (2nd ed., 3 images) 1794 (1st ed. 1791)
Pavlovich, Khristaki Bulgarian Arithmetic (4 images) 1833
Peano, Guiseppe Geometric (Vector) Calculus (in German, 2 images) 1891 (Ital. original 1888)
Peirce, Benjamin (editor) Cambridge Miscellany of Mathematics April 1842
Peirce, Benjamin Osgood Mathematical and Physical Papers (4 images) 1926
Peletier, Jacques l'Algebre (3 images) 1554
Pell, John Controversy with Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle (3 images) 1647
Peuerbach, Georg von Epitome of Ptolemy's Almagest (4 images; see also these 5 images) 1496
della Francesca, Piero Works of Archimedes (11 images) late 1450s
Pike, Nicolas Arithmetic (4 images) 1788
Pitiscus, Bartholomew Trigonometry (2 images) 1600
Playfair, John Elements of Geometry (4 images) 1832 (original 1795)
Plücker, Julius System der analytischen Geometrie (2 images) 1835
Plücker, Julius Theorie der algebraischen Curven 1839
Poincaré, Henri Science and Hypothesis (5 images) 1902/1905
Poincaré, Henri Calcul des Probabilités (2 images) 1912 (original 1907)
Poncelet, Jean Victor Propriétés Projectives des Figures (Projective Geometry, 3 images) 1822/1865
Prestet, Jean Elemens de mathematiques (2 images) 1675
Ptolemy, Claudius Almagest (3 images) 1515 (original from 2nd century)
Puckle, George Hale An Elementary Treatise on Conic Sections and Algebraic Geometry (8 images) 1854
Puiseux, Victor Mathematical Papers (3 images) 1842
Qāḍī Zāda Mūsá ibn Muḥammad (also known as al-Rūmī) Sharḥ ashkāl al-taʾsīs (Commentary on the Fundamental Theorems) 16th century copy of ca 1413 original
Qāḍī Zāda Mūsá ibn Muḥammad (also known as al-Rūmī) Sharḥ ashkāl al-taʾsīs (Commentary on the Fundamental Theorems, 3 images) ca 1413-1611 copy of ca 1413 original
Back to top    
Ramsden, Jesse Sector from Ramsden's Workshop 1765-1800
Ramus, Peter The Way to Geometry (2 images) 1636
Ratdolt, Erhardus Euclid's Elements (10 images) 1482
Rathborne, Aaron Surveyor in Foure Bookes (3 images) 1616
Recorde, Robert Pathway to Knowledge 1551
Recorde, Robert Grounde of Artes (4 images) 1543
Recorde, Robert Whetstone of Witte (6 images) 1557
Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller) On Triangles (2 images) 1533
Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller) Epitome of Ptolemy's Almagest (4 images; see also these 5 images) 1496
Riemann, Bernhard Partielle Differentialgleichungen (2 images) 1869
Reisch, Gregor Margarita philosophica (6 images) 1503
Ricci, Matteo, and Xu Guanqi Ce liang fa yi (Theory of Surveying) ca 1610
Riese, Adam Rechenbuch (2 images) 1550
Ritty, James and John Ritty cash register by 1904
Rose, John United States Arithmetician (5th ed., 4 images) 1832
Rossetti, Donato Figure de Sistemi del Mondo d’Aristotile Copernico e Ticone (8 images) 1680
Rubik's Cube Museum Promotional Pen 1988–1991
Russell, Bertrand and A. N. Whitehead Principia Mathematica (6 images) 1910-1913/1925
Back to top    
Sabeus, Bernard Italian astrolabe 1558
Sacrobosco, Johannes de De sphaera mundi (Astronomy, 3 images) 1482 (13th cent. original)
Sacrobosco, Johannes de Algorismus (Arithmetic, 2 images) 1490 (13th cent. original)
Safe-T Blackboard triangles 2000
Salmon, George Treatise on Conic Sections (3 images) 1869 (original 1848)
Santcliment, Francesc Suma de la art de arismetica (8 images) 1482
Sault, Richard New Treatise of Algebra (5 images) 1694
Saxton, John The Merchant's Companion (2 images) 1737
Schessler, Christian Demonstrationes mathematicae (9 images) 1698
Scheubel, Johann De numeris (2 images) 1545
Scheubel, Johann Algebrae Compendiosa (22 images) 1551
Schilling, Martin Hypotrochoid kinematic model ca 1900
Schlegel, Victor Grassman’s Extension Theory (Ausdehnungslehre) 1872
Schreiber, Heinrich (Henricus Grammateus) Ayn new Kunstlich Buech (A New Skill Book, 3 images) 1518
Schwarz, Hermann C. Versuch einer Philosophie der Mathematik (3 images) 1853
Schwenter, Daniel Delicia Physico-Mathematicae (in German, 9 images) 1636, 1651
Schwenter, Daniel Geometriae practicae (6 images) 1641
Seki Kowa Essentials of Mathematics (2 images) 1712
Sellers, John A Pocket Book ... of Mathematical Tables (4 images) 1677
Sem, Johannes Practijck des Landmetens (2 images) 1620
Serjant, Mary Copybook (2 images) 1688
Shakers of West Gloucester (later Sabbathday), Maine Metric volume measures 1877–1900
Simpson, Thomas Doctrine of Annuities and Reversions (3 images) 1775 (original 1742)
Simpson, Thomas Doctrine and Application of Fluxions (3 images) 1805 (original 1750)
Simson, Robert Robert Simson's Conic Sections (4 images) 1804 (original 1749)
Somerville, Mary Celestial Mechanics (in English, 2 images) 1831
Speidell, John Speidell's Geometry Manuscript (3 images) 1648
Steiner, Jakob Synthetische Geometrie (2 images) 1876 (original 1867)
Stevin, Simon Oeuvres Mathematiques (5 images) 1634
Stifel, Michael Arithmetica Integra (5 images) 1544
Story, William American Journal of Mathematics (6 images) 1878
Sturm, Johann Christoph Mathesis Enucleata (Elements of Mathematics, 3 images) 1695
Sturmy, Samuel Mariner's Magazine (2 images) 1669
Swineshead, Richard Opus aureum calculationum 1477 (original ca. 1350)
Sylvester, James Joseph Letter to Leopold Kronecker (2 images) 1884
Sylvester, James Joseph American Journal of Mathematics (6 images) 1878
Back to top    
Tacquet, Andrea (Andrew) Tacquet's Euclid and Archimedes (5 images; see also these 2 images and these 4 images) 1654/1747/1753
Tacquet, Andrea Practical and theoretical arithmetic (2 images) 1704 (original 1656)
Tait, Peter Guthrie Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (4 images) 1867
Tanner, Robert A Mirror for Mathematiques (3 images) 1587
Tannery, Paul, and Charles Henry Oeuvres de Fermat, Vol. I (3 images) 1891
Tartaglia, Nicolo Nova Scientia (4 images) 1537
Tartaglia, Nicolo Treatise on Number & Measure (2 images) 1556
Tartaglia, Nicolo L’Arithmetique (3 images) 1578 (original 1556)
Taylor, John Thesaurium mathematicae, or Treasury of Mathematics (3 images) 1687
Taylor, John Thesaurium mathematicae, or Treasury of Mathematics (8 images) 1687
Thomas, Charles Thomas Arithmometer 1867
Tizzard, Samuel New Athenian Oracle, or Ladies' Companion (3 images) 1806
Todd, John American Tutor's Assistant (2nd ed., 3 images) 1794 (1st ed. 1791)
Torricelli, Evangelista Opera geometrica (4 images; see also these 4 images) 1644
Torricelli, Evangelista Academic Lectures (2 images; see also these 2 images and these 2 images) 1715 (delivered 1642–1647)
Troncet, Louis Troncet Arithmographe 1889/1895
Tunstall, Cuthbert De arte supputandi (3 images) 1529 (1522 original)
van Etten, Henry (Hendrik) Mathematicall Recreations (3rd English ed., 2 images) 1674 (original English ed. 1633, French original 1624)
van Heuraet, Hendrick Rectification of Curves (3 images) 1659
van Schooten, Frans De organica conicarum sectionum (3 images) 1646
van Schooten, Frans Exercitationes mathematicae (7 images; see also these 4 images) 1657
van Schooten, Frans Geometria a Renato des Cartes (3 images) 1659
Vega, Georg Tables of Logarithms, Trigonometric Values 1783
Vega, Georg Lectures on Mathematics (2nd of 4 vols., 4 images) 1784
de Ville Dei, Alexandre Carmen de Algorism (3 images) ca 1240
da Vinci, Leonardo Sketches for Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione (15 images) 1509
Vlacq, Adriaan Tabellen der Sinuum, Tangentium, und Secantium (2 images) 1663 (original 1636)
Volterra, Vito Theory of Functionals (2 images) 1930
von Humboldt, Alexander Codex Mexicanus of the Maya 1814 (12th cent. original)
Vossius, Gerardus Scientiis Mathematicis (3 images) 1650
Wallis, John Archimedes in Greek and Latin (2 images) 1676
Wallis, John Treatise of Algebra (4 images; see also these 4 images) 1685
Wallis, John Opera mathematica (6 images; see also these 6 images)) 1695 (1693-1699)
Walsh, Michael Mercantile Arithmetic: Adapted to the U.S. (6 images) 1801
Wang, An Wang desktop programmable calculator ca 1965
Ward, John Compendium of Algebra (3 images) 1724
Ward, John Young Mathematician's Guide (2 images) 1734 (original 1703)
Waring, Edward Meditationes Analyticae (3 images) 1785 (original 1773)
Waring, William American Tutor's Assistant (2nd ed., 3 images) 1794 (1st ed. 1791)
Waymouth, George Jewell of Artes (3 images) 1604
Webber, Samuel Mathematics for Harvard Students (3 images) 1808 (original 1801)
Webster, William A compendious course of practical mathematicks 1730
Weigel, Erhard Philosophia Mathematica (2 images) 1693
Wheeler, A. Harry Geometric model from paper 1915
Whitehead, Alfred North Introduction to Mathematics (3 images) 1911
Whitehead, Alfred North and Bertrand Russell Principia Mathematica (6 images) 1910-1913/1925
Wilson, Edwin B. Gibbs' Vector Analysis (5 images) 1901
Winthrop, William U.S. College Mathematics (copybooks, 6 images) 1769-1774
Witt, Jan de Elements of Curves (5 images) 1683
Woepcke, Franz History of Indian Cyphers (3 images) 1863
Wolff, Christian Foundations of All Mathematical Knowledge (6 images) 1710/1772
Wolff, Christian Mathematical Lexicon (3 images) 1716
Wolff, Christian Treatise of Algebra (5 images) 1739/1765
Wood, Benjamin IBM statistical tabulator 1929
Wood, Matthew Copybook (2 images) 1699
Wylie, Alexander and Li Shanlan A New Mathematics Curriculum for China (10 images) 1853/1859
Xu Guanqi and Matteo Ricci Ce liang fa yi (Theory of Surveying) ca 1610
Zhu Shijie Xin bian suan xue qi meng (New Arithmetic Enlightenment, 2 images) 1839 (original 1299)
Zhu Shijie Xin bian suan xue qi meng (New Arithmetic Enlightenment, 3 images) 1660 (original 1299)
Zubler, Leonhard Nova Instrumentum Geometricum (5 images) 1607
Zeuthen, Hieronymous Georg History of Mathematics in Antiquity and Middle Ages (3 images) 1896 (original 1893)


Most of the images in this collection of "mathematical treasures" were obtained for Convergence and the MAA by Convergence's "chief treasure hunter" and co-founding editor, Frank Swetz, of The Pennsylvania State University. We are grateful to him; to the National Science Foundation for partial funding of the project via grants to MAA; to the History of Mathematics Special Interest Group of the MAA (HOM SIGMAA) for partial funding of the project; and to the librarians, museum curators, and individuals who allowed us to publish images of their treasures here and now allow you to use them in your classroom. Contributing libraries, museums, and individuals include:

"Index to Mathematical Treasures," Convergence (July 2015)