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The second group of problems is from old American textbooks.

1. If a barrel of ale will last a family of 6 persons for 2 months, how many persons would drink 9 barrels in a year?

Solution:

First state this: 1 barrel per 6 people per two months. If you divide 1 by 6 and by 2 you get .0833333...Then you state that nine barrels per X people per 12 months, or 9 divided by 12 equals .75. Then divide .75 by .0833333. By doing this you get 9 persons, which is the answer.

2. If by paying a teacher $3.25 per week a certain school would be kept 11 1/2 weeks, how long might it be kept if she be paid only $2.875 per week? (Question: When would a teacher have been earning somewhere near $3 per week?)

Solution:

First I multiplied $3.25 which she was paid by 11 1/2 weeks, which gave me $37.75. Then I divided that by $2.875 to see the number of weeks, which was 13.

3. A teacher receives 77 pieces of money for his month’s salary. The number of half dimes (nickels) received is 85 5/7% of the number of dimes; the number of dimes equals 87 1/2% of the number of quarters; the number of quarters equals 40% of the number of halves; and the number of halves equals 55 5/9 % of the number of dollars; what was his salary?

Solution:

First I converted the percents to fractions.

Nickels = 6/7 dimes

Dimes = 7/8 quarters

Quarters = 2/5 halves

Halves = 5/9 dollars

Total 77 pieces.

I first guessed 19 dollars and did try and check. My answer was way off because I needed more pieces of money. I tried higher numbers of dollars and finally got the correct answer. I guessed 36 dollars and multiplied that by 5/9. I got 20 which was the number of halves. I multiplied 20 by 2/5 and got 8 which was the number of quarters. I multiplied 8 by 7/8 and got 7 which was the number of dimes. Then I multiplied 7 by 6/7 and got 6 which was the number of nickels. I added all of the pieces of money together and got 77. The salary was $49.00. (Note how much higher this was than in the previous problem, where the teacher made somewhere near $12 for a month. Does this have to do with the fact that here the teacher is male, while in the previous problem the teacher is female?)

4. A man bequeathed $900 to three friends; the first must have a certain portion, the second must have twice as much as the first, the third $28 more than the first. How much did each person receive?

Solution:

X + 2X + (X + 28) = 900

4X + 28 = 900

4X = 872

X = $218

Thus: First gets $218

Second gets 2 x 218 or $436

Third gets $218 + $28 = $246

5. If 1 pig is worth $3 and 5 pigs are worth 2 sheep and 5 sheep are worth 2 cows and 10 cows are worth 3 horses, what is the value of 12 horses?

Solution:

First state the problem simply: 1 pig = $3, 5 pigs = 2 sheep, 5 sheep = 2 cows and 10 cows = 3 horses. 12 horses ?

I then calculated: 1 x 3 = 3; 3 x 5 = 15; 15/2 = 7.5; 7.5 x 5 = 37.5; 37.5/2 = 18.75; 18.75 x 10 = 187.5; 187.5/3 = 62.5; 62.5 x 12 = $750, the answer.

Karen Michalowicz and Robert McGee, "Using Historical Problems in the Middle School - Problems from 19th Century American Textbooks," *Convergence* (July 2007)