This is one in a series of lessons in probability on the Math Goodies site. Independence of events is described informally and then the multiplication rule is given.

This is a brief article on independence, and treats independent events, independent random variables, and independent sigma-algebras. The last topic is too advanced for an elementary course.

This site is an interactive text with links to simulations. The description of the game is followed by a series of 34 statements, including proofs and questions (answers are available).

Good statement of the problem with expectation and variance calculated. Several methods of bounding the expectation and variance are given as the number of coupons gets large.

A discussion of the derangement problem with links to demonstrations of the concept. The number in the derangements as the number of objects approaches infinity is shown to be equal to \(e\).

\(n\) balls numbered 1 through \(n\) are randomly arranged. A match occurs when the ball number matches the position number. The number of matches is recorded.