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Economic Modeling and Inference

Bent Jesper Christensen and Nicholas M. Kiefer
Publisher: 
Princeton University Press
Publication Date: 
2009
Number of Pages: 
482
Format: 
Hardcover
Price: 
49.50
ISBN: 
9780691120591
Category: 
Monograph
We do not plan to review this book.

 

Preface xiii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Expected Utility Theory 1
1.2 Uncertainty Aversion, Ellsberg and Allais 4
1.3 Structural Versus Reduced-Form Methods 6
1.4 Exercises 7
1.5 References 8

Chapter 2: Components of a Dynamic Programming Model 9
2.1 Examples 9
2.2 Data Configurations 13
2.3 The Objective Function 16
2.4 The State Variables 17
2.5 The Control Variables 18
2.6 The Transition Distribution 19
2.7 The Curse of Dimensionality 21
2.8 The Curse of Degeneracy 22
2.9 Exercises 24
2.10 References 25

Chapter 3: Discrete States and Controls 26
3.1 Solving DP Problems: Finite Horizon 26
3.2 Solving DP Problems: Infinite Horizon 30
3.2.1 The Method of Successive Approximation 32
3.2.2 The Method of Policy Iteration 34
3.3 Identification: A Preview 35
3.4 Exercises 37
3.5 References 37

Chapter 4: Likelihood Functions for Discrete State/Control Models 38
4.1 Likelihood with Complete Observability 38
4.2 Measurement Error 45
4.3 Imperfect Control 51
4.4 Conclusions 54
4.5 Exercises 55
4.6 References 55

Chapter 5: Random Utility Models 57
5.1 Introduction 57
5.2 The Value Function 59
5.3 A Binary Utility Shock 60
5.4 A Continuously Distributed Utility Shock 62
5.5 Choice Probabilities 65
5.6 Dynamic Continuous Random Utility 66
5.7 Exercises 69
5.8 References 70

Chapter 6: Continuous States, Discrete Controls 71
6.1 Introduction 71
6.2 Transition Distributions and Utility 73
6.3 The Value Function and Backward Recursion 74
6.4 Example: Exercising an American Option 76
6.5 Infinite Horizon: Contraction and Forward Recursion 79
6.6 Example: Optimal Stopping in Discrete Time 83
6.7 Exercises 85
6.8 References 85

Chapter 7: Econometric Framework for the Search Model 87
7.1 The Search Model 87
7.2 Likelihood: General Considerations 89
7.3 Likelihood: Specifics for Wage Data 94
7.3.1 Wage Data Alone--One Parameter 96
7.3.2 Wage Data--Two Parameters 97
7.3.3 Wage Data Alone--Offer Arrival Probability 99
7.4 Likelihood: Wage and Duration Data 100
7.4.1 Wage and Duration Data--Two Parameters 100
7.4.2 Wage and Duration Data--Three Parameters 102
7.4.3 Wage and Duration Data--Gamma Distribution 104
7.5 Exercises 107
7.6 References 108

Chapter 8: Exact Distribution Theory for the Job Search Model 109
8.1 Introduction 109
8.2 The Prototypal Search Model 110
8.3 Alternative Economic Parametrizations 115
8.4 Models for Joint Wage and Duration Data 122
8.5 Conclusion 127
8.6 Exercises 128
8.7 References 128

Chapter 9: Measurement Error in the Prototypal Job Search Model 129
9.1 Introduction 129
9.2 The Prototypal Search Model 130
9.3 The Prototypal Model with Measurement Errors 132
9.4 Characterizing the Distribution of Measurement Errors 134
9.5 Estimation in the Prototypal Model with Measurement Errors 136
9.6 Application to the SIPP Data Set 139
9.7 Conclusions 146
9.8 Exercises 146
9.9 References 147

Chapter 10: Asset Markets 148
10.1 Introduction 148
10.2 General Asset Pricing 148
10.3 The Term Structure of Interest Rates 150
10.4 Forward Contracts 154
10.5 Futures Contracts 156
10.6 Introduction to Options 160
10.7 The Binomial Method 162
10.8 Empirical Applications 166
10.8.1 Time Series Properties 167
10.8.2 Portfolio Models 174
10.8.3 Time-Varying Volatility 181
10.8.4 Term Structure Analysis 184
10.9 Exercises 191
10.10 References 191

Chapter 11: Financial Options 192
11.1 Introduction 192
11.2 Financial Option Exercise and Job Search 192
11.3 Multiple Finite-Horizon Options 194
11.4 Markov Stock Prices 196
11.5 Value Functions for American Options 199
11.6 Option Price Data 205
11.7 Testing Option Market Efficiency 208
11.8 Exercises 212
11.9 References 212

Chapter 12: Retirement 213
12.1 Introduction 213
12.2 A Simple Retirement Model 213
12.3 The Likelihood Function 216
12.4 Longitudinal Data 221
12.5 Regularizing the Likelihood 224
12.6 Generalizations 232
12.7 Alternative Models 236
12.8 Application: The Joint Retirement of Married Couples 240
12.9 Exercises 242
12.10 References 243

Chapter 13: Continuous States and Controls 244
13.1 Introduction 244
13.2 The Linear-Quadratic Model: Finite Horizon 245
13.2.1 An Application: Macroeconomic Control 247
13.2.2 Rational Expectations 248
13.3 The Linear-Quadratic Model: Infinite Horizon 249
13.3.1 Application: Macro Policy with Rational Expectations 250
13.4 Estimation of Linear-Quadratic Models 251
13.4.1 The Curse of Degeneracy 251
13.4.2 Sources of Noise 251
13.4.3 Measurement Error 253
13.4.4 Imperfect Control 253
13.4.5 Random Utility 254
13.5 The General (Non-LQ) Case 256
13.6 Smoothness: Euler Equations 260
13.7 Discussion and Examples 261
13.8 Random Utility in the General Case 264
13.9 Exercises 264
13.10 References 265

Chapter 14: Continuous-Time Models 266
14.1 Introduction 266
14.2 Optimal Stopping in Continuous Time 269
14.3 A Jump Process Application: Allocation of Time over Time 270
14.4 Dynamic Consumption and Portfolio Choice 274
14.5 Application: Changing Investment Opportunities 278
14.6 Derivatives, Hedging, and Arbitrage Pricing 281
14.7 Stochastic Volatility and Jumps 289
14.8 The Term Structure of Interest Rates in Continuous Time 298
14.9 Exercises 310
14.10 References 310

Chapter 15: Microeconomic Applications 312
15.1 Introduction 312
15.2 Bus Engine Replacement 313
15.3 Aircraft Engine Maintenance 314
15.4 Medical Treatment and Absenteeism 316
15.5 Nuclear Power Plant Operation 317
15.6 Fertility and Child Mortality 319
15.7 Costs of Price Adjustment 320
15.8 Schooling, Work, and Occupational Choice 322
15.9 Renewal of Patents 323
15.10 Marketing--Direct Mailing of Catalogs 324
15.11 Scrapping Subsidies and Automobile Purchases 326
15.12 On-the-Job Search and the Wage Distribution 327
15.13 Exercises 329
15.14 References 330

Chapter 16: Macroeconomic Applications 331
16.1 Consumption as a Random Walk 331
16.2 Consumption and Asset Returns 333
16.3 Dynamic Labor Demand 334
16.4 Time Inconsistency of Optimal Plans 336
16.5 Time to Build 338
16.6 Nonseparable Utility 339
16.7 Preferences of Monetary Authorities 341
16.8 Dynamic Labor Supply 342
16.9 Effects of U.S. Farm Subsidies 345
16.10 Exercises 346
16.11 References 346

Chapter 17: Finance Application: Futures Hedging 347
17.1 Hedging Strategies 347
17.2 Self-Financing Trading Strategies 350
17.3 Estimation 353
17.4 Exercises 359
17.5 References 359

Chapter 18: Intertemporal Asset Pricing 360
18.1 Introduction 360
18.2 Prices and Returns 361
18.3 Capital Asset Pricing Model 362
18.4 Estimation 363
18.5 A Structural Model 365
18.6 Asset Pricing Puzzles 369
18.7 Exercises 376
18.8 References 376

Chapter 19: Dynamic Equilibrium: The Search Model 377
19.1 Introduction 377
19.2 Homogeneous Equilibrium Search 378
19.3 Data Distribution and Likelihood 383
19.4 Panels with Partially Missing Observations 389
19.4.1 The Contribution of Unemployment Duration 390
19.4.2 The Contribution of Wages 390
19.4.3 The Contribution of Employment Duration 392
19.4.4 A Numerical Example 394
19.5 Geometric Information Decomposition 395
19.5.1 Destination State Information 400
19.6 Data and Summary Statistics 403
19.7 Empirical Results 406
19.8 Conclusion 414
19.9 Exercises 415
19.10 References 415

Chapter 20: Dynamic Equilibrium: Search Equilibrium Extensions 416
20.1 Introduction 416
20.2 Measurement Error in Wages 416
20.3 Heterogeneity in Productivity: The Discrete Case 420
20.4 Heterogeneity in Productivity: The Continuous Case 424
20.5 Conclusion 429
20.6 Exercises 429
20.7 References 429

Appendix: Brief Review of Statistical Theory 431
A.1 Introduction 431
A.2 Exponential Families 432
A.3 Maximum Likelihood 434
A.4 Classical Theory of Testing 437

References 441
Index 469

Dummy View - NOT TO BE DELETED