Preface; 1. Research on the women and mathematics issue: a personal case history Susan Chipman; 2. The perseverative search for sex differences in mathematic ability Paula Caplan and Jeremy Caplan; 3. A psychobiosocial model: why females are sometimes > and sometimes < males in math achievement Diane Halpern, Jonathan Wai and Amanda Saw; 4. Gender differences in math: cognitive processes in an expanded framework James Byrnes; 5. Cognitive contributions to sex differences in math performance James M. Royer and Laura M. Garofoli; 6. Spatial ability as a mediator of gender differences on mathematics tests: a biological-environmental framework M. Beth Casey, Ronald Nuttal and Elizabeth Pezaris; 7. Examining gender-related differential item functioning using insights from psychometric and multicontext theory Rob Ibarra; 8. The gender-gap artifact: women’s underperformance in quantitative domains through the lens of stereotype threat Paul Davies and Steve Spencer; 9. ‘Math is hard!’ (Barbie, 1994): responses of threat vs challenge mediated arousal of stereotypes alleging intellectual inferiority Talia Ben Zee, Cristina M. Carrasquillo, Alison M. L. Ching, Tattiya J. Kliengklom, Kristen L. McDonald, Daniel C. Newhall, Gillian E. Patton, Tiffany D. Stewart, Tonya Stoddard, Michael Inzlicht and Steve Fein; 10. The role of ethnicity on the gender gap in mathematics Alyssa Walters and Lisa Brown; 11. The gender gap in mathematics: merely a step function Sophia Catsambis; 12. ‘I can, but I don’t want to’: the impact of parents, interests, and activities on gender differences in math Janis E. Jacobs, Pamela Davis-Kean, Martha Bleeker, Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Oksana Malachuk; 13. Gender effects on mathematics achievement: mediating role of state and trait self-regulation Eunsook Hong, Harold O’Neil and David Feldon; 14. Gender differences in mathematics self efficacy beliefs Frank Pajares; 15. Integrative conclusion Ann Gallagher and James Kaufman.