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Materials in Eighteenth-Century Science: A Historical Ontology

Ursula Klein and Wolfgang Lefévre
Publisher: 
MIT Press
Publication Date: 
2007
Number of Pages: 
345
Format: 
Hardcover
Price: 
45.00
ISBN: 
9780262113069
Category: 
Monograph
We do not plan to review this book.

 

List of Figures ix
Introduction
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1
Part 1: Materials in Eighteenth-Century Science
Contexts and Practices
5
Introduction to Part I
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7
1 Commodities and Natural Objects
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11
1.1 Origin from the three natural kingdoms 11
1.2 Commodities 14
1.3 Learned inquiry into materials 19
2 Practices of Studying Materials in Eighteenth-Century Chemistry 21
2.1 Experimental history (historia experimentalis) 22
2.2 Technological improvement 31
2.3 Experimental inquiries into the imperceptible dimension of substances 37
2.4 The many dimensions of material substances 58
3 Why Study Classification? 63
3.1 Selectivity 63
3.2 Ontological shifts 66
3.3 Productivity 68
3.4 Diversity 74
3.5 Representing chemical classifications 76
Part II: A World of Pure Chemical Substances 81
Introduction to Part II 83
4 1787: A New Nomenclature 87
4.1 The anti-phlogistic task force 88
4.2 Chemists’ request for a new chemical nomenclature 91
4.3 The new nomenclature: A divide? 92
4.4 Classification in the Méthode 94
5 The Tableau de la Nomenclature Chimique 97
5.1 Description of the Tableau 97
5.2 The formal classificatory structure of the Tableau 106
6 Classifying According to Chemical Composition 109
6.1 Pure chemical substances 109
6.2 Composition 112
6.3 The arduous career of the analytical method 115
7 Simple Substances and Paradigmatic Syntheses 127
7.1 Classification of simple substances 128
8 Operations with Pure Chemical Substances 135
8.1 Reversible operations in metallurgy 136
8.2 Reversible operations in pharmaceutical salt production 142
8.3 A chemistry of pure substances takes shape: Geoffroy's affinity table of 1718 147
9 Classification of Pure Chemical Substances before 1787 155
9.1 Classification of substances in affinity tables 155
9.2 The classifications of minerals before 1787 163
10 A Revolutionary Table? 179
10.1 Reaping the rewards of a century 179
10.2 Classification and Chemical Revolution 182
10.3 The classification's transitoriness 185
10.4 Classification and nomenclature 187
Part III: A Different World
Plant Materials
193
Introduction to Part III 195
11 Diverse Orders of Plant Materials 199
11.1 Commodities from the vegetable kingdom 199
11.2 Natural historical modes of identification and classification 201
11.3 Pharmaceutical and artisanal modes of classifying plant materials 205
12 Ultimate Principles of Plants: Plant Analysis prior to 1750 211
12.1 Separation of the ultimate chemical principles 211
12.2 Simplicia, vegetable juices, and the ultimate principles of plants 213
12.3 Meanings of "plant analysis" 216
13 The Epistemic Elevation of Vegetable Commodities 221
13.1 Chemists’ grouping together of proximate principles of plants after 1750 221
13.2 Plants and animals as "organized" or "organic" bodies 232
13.3 A second ontological shift circa 1790
The coming into being of "organic substances"
245
14 The Failure of Lavoisier's Plant Chemistry 255
14.1 Lavoisier's analytical program for classifying plant and animal substances 255
14.2 Theoretical limits of Lavoisier's analytical program 266
15 Uncertainties 273
15.1 Ambiguities and disagreement in chemists' identification and classification 273
15.2 What were the taxonomic consequences of the Lavoisierian analytical program? 276
16 A Novel Mode of Classifying Organic Substances and an Ontological Shift around 1830 285
16.1 The ontological shift in the 1830s: stoichiometric substances 288
16.2 The trajectory of ontological shifts in plant chemistry 291
Conclusion: Multidimensional Objects and Materiality 295
References 307
Name Index

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