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Author Keith Devlin argues that the impact of the Pisan merchant and his Arabic numbers on medieval Europe was even greater than previously thought.

Given a triangular piece of land having two sides 10 yards in length and its base 12 yards, what is the largest square that can be constructed within this piece of land so that one of its sides lies along the base of the triangle?
This is the title page of the first textbook in the calculus of variations, Leonhard Euler's Method of Finding Curved Lines that Show some Property of Maximum or Minimum. It was published in 1744.
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
A lady being asked how old she was at the time of her marriage replied that the age of her oldest son was 13; that he was born 2 years after her marriage...
There are four companies, in one of which there are 6 men, in another 8, and in each of the remaining two, 9 men. How many ways can a committee of 4 men be composed by choosing one man from each company?
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?

Mesopotamian accounting evolved from simple clay token counters to a number-recording system that included impressions of these tokens on clay tablets.

If 12 cattle eat up 3 1/3 acres of meadow in 4 weeks and 21 cattle eat up 10 acres of exactly similar meadow in 9 weeks, how many cattle shall eat up 36 acres in 18 weeks? (Hint: The grass continues to grow.)