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What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when it's angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers?
This is the title page of the Margarita philosophica (Pearl of Wisdom) of Gregor Reisch (1467 - 1525). The first edition was published in 1503. This work was used as a university textbook in the early sixteenth century.
Given a rectangle, find the line through one vertex of minimum length that passes through the extensions of the two opposite sides.
Determine the radii of three equal circles decribed within and tangent to a given circle, and also tangent to each other
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
In how many ways can a vowel and a consonant be chosen out of the word "logarithms?"

Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions

Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.
This is page 167 from the Exercitationes mathematicae (1657) of Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). This book contained a collection of mathematical construction problems, among much else. It was one of the books read by Isaac Newton while he was a student at Cambridge University and helped to introduce him to modern mathematics. On this page we see a construction enabling one to find the distance across a river.
Fibonacci gave a practical rule for approximating the area of an equilateral triangle.