Historical Problems can be used to enliven any mathematics class. Here are some examples from medieval times, from a 19th century American textbook, and from a 19th century Armenian textbook, among other sources.
Two persons sat down to play for a certain sum of money; and agree that the first who gets three games shall be the winner. After a few games they resolve to divide the stakes. How much should each person receive?
Page from the table of contents of Robert Recorde's The Grounde of Artes (1543) in which is outlined the first dialogue. This dialogue deals with some of the elements of arithmetic, including the basic operations and the use of the rule of three (or the Golden rule).