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This is the title page of the Margarita philosophica (Pearl of Wisdom) of Gregor Reisch (1467 - 1525). The first edition was published in 1503. This work was used as a university textbook in the early sixteenth century.
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
In how many ways can a vowel and a consonant be chosen out of the word "logarithms?"
A barrel has various holes in it. The fist hole empties the barrel in three days...

Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions

A man agreed to pay for 13 valuable houses worth $5000 each, what the last would amount to, reckoning 7 cents for the first, 4 times 7 cents for the second, and so on, increasing the price 4 times on each to the last.
A lively description of ten of the greatest feuds in mathematics.
This is page 167 from the Exercitationes mathematicae (1657) of Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). This book contained a collection of mathematical construction problems, among much else. It was one of the books read by Isaac Newton while he was a student at Cambridge University and helped to introduce him to modern mathematics. On this page we see a construction enabling one to find the distance across a river.
This website offers a collection of biographies of mathematicians and a variety of resources on the development of various branches of mathematics. It is an extremely rich and extensive site.
Prove geometrically that the hypocycloid is a straight line when the radius of the rolling circle is one-half the radius of the fixed circle.