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In this article which won the 2005 prize of HOMSIGMAA, the author discusses Eratosthenes' argument to determine the size of the earth as well as possibilities for the size which Eratosthenes found (in modern measures).
This is the title page of the Margarita philosophica (Pearl of Wisdom) of Gregor Reisch (1467 - 1525). The first edition was published in 1503. This work was used as a university textbook in the early sixteenth century.
Problems taken from Chinese sources
Given right triangle ABC where C is the right angle, ellipse O (a,b) is inscribed in it, with its major axis parallel to BC. Calculate the semi-major axis, a, in terms of AC, BC and b.
A translation of part of a thirteenth century work by the Byzantine monk Maximus Planudes on the Hindu-Arabic numerals and the algorithms for calculation.
A man went to a draper and bought a length of cloth 35 braccia long to make a suit of clothes.

Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions

A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
This is page 167 from the Exercitationes mathematicae (1657) of Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). This book contained a collection of mathematical construction problems, among much else. It was one of the books read by Isaac Newton while he was a student at Cambridge University and helped to introduce him to modern mathematics. On this page we see a construction enabling one to find the distance across a river.