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Collection (from 1614) of Roger Bacon's 13th century writings on applications of mathematics

Thirty flasks-10 full, 10 half-empty, and 10 completely empty- are to be divided among 3 sons so that flasks and contents should be shared equally. How may this be done?
This is a page from an early printed edition of the Arithmetica of Jordanus de Nemore (early 13th century).
One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
A man bought a number of sheep for $225; 10 of them having died, he sold 4/5 of the remainder for the same cost and received $150 for them. How many did he buy?
If a ladder, placed 8 ft. from the base of a building 40 ft. high, just reached the top, how far must it be placed from the base of the building that it may reach a point 10 ft. from the top?
Two travelers, starting at the same time from the same point, travel in opposite directions round a circular railway.
Seven men held equal shares in a grinding stone 5 feet in diameter. What part of the diameter should each grind away?
Given a rectangle, find the line through one vertex of minimum length that passes through the extensions of the two opposite sides.

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