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I owe a man the following notes: one of $800 due May 16; one of $660 due on July 1; one of $940 due Sept. 29. He wishes to exchange them for two notes of $1200 each and wants one to fall due June 1. When should the other be due?

Mesopotamian accounting evolved from simple clay token counters to a number-recording system that included impressions of these tokens on clay tablets.

A set of n disjoint, congruent circles packs the surface of a sphere S so that each region of the surface exterior to the circles is bounded by arcs of three of the circles.
This is the title page of the 1779 edition of the works of Isaac Newton known at that time. Note that this is a much shorter book than the recent eight volume collection of Newton's mathematical papers, edited by Derek Whiteside.
A copper water tank in the form of a rectangular parallelopiped is to made. If its length is to be a times its breadth, how high should it be that for a given capacity it should cost as little as possible?
A brief version of the author's well-known history of mathematics text.
Original source material from seventeen mathematicians, with commentary by Stephen Hawking.
Given four numbers whose sum is 9900; the second exceeds the first by 1/7 of the first...

A history of the concept of zero from as far back as the Babylonian period, with philosophical excursions into the meaning of "nothing".

Now a good horse and an inferior horse set out from Chang'an to Qi. Qi is 3000 li from Chang'an.