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The story of the negative numbers

Mesopotamian accounting evolved from simple clay token counters to a number-recording system that included impressions of these tokens on clay tablets.

One says that 10 garments were purchased by two men at a price of 72 dirhams. The garments varied in value. The price of each garment of one man is 3 dirhams more than the price for each garment of the other. How many garments did each man buy?
There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
This is the title page of the 1779 edition of the works of Isaac Newton known at that time. Note that this is a much shorter book than the recent eight volume collection of Newton's mathematical papers, edited by Derek Whiteside.
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
A lady being asked how old she was at the time of her marriage replied that the age of her oldest son was 13; that he was born 2 years after her marriage...
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?
The story of Gerbert, who became Pope Sylvester II in 999, and his mathematics.
If 12 cattle eat up 3 1/3 acres of meadow in 4 weeks and 21 cattle eat up 10 acres of exactly similar meadow in 9 weeks, how many cattle shall eat up 36 acres in 18 weeks? (Hint: The grass continues to grow.)

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