This is the title page of the 1599 edition of the Rechenbuch of Simon Jacob (d. 1564), a Rechenmeister of the sixteenth century. This was a commercial arithmetic text, in which the basic laws of arithmetic were applied to many practical problems.

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Find the area of the elliptical segment cut off parallel to the shorter axis;

Three circles of varying radius are mutually tangent. The area of the triangle connecting their centers is given. Find the radius of the third circle.

A translation from the original Greek of a manuscript on magic squares by the Byzantine scholar Manuel Moschopoulos, written about 1315

A cylindrical tin tomato can is to be made which shall have a given capacity. Find what should be the ratio of the height to the radius of the base that the smallest possible amount of tin shall be required.

There is a round town 8000 feet in circumference.

A cat sitting on a wall 4 cubits high saw a rat prowling 8 cubits from the foot of the wall;

Download the two winning essays to learn about using indivisibles to find the area under a cycloid arch in the 17th century and about the Radon transform and its use in x-ray tomography in the 20th century.

This is from a letter of June, 1695 in which Leibniz is discussing differentiation with Johann Bernoulli. The work in which these letters appear is the Virorum Celeberr. Got. Gul. Leibnitii et Johann Bernoulli Commercium Philosophicum et Mathematica, originally published in 1740.

A certain merchant increases the value of his estate by 1/3...