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This is the title page of the Siderius Nuncius (Starry Messenger) of Galileo (1564-1642), published in 1610. This book was a report on Galileo's first investigations with a telescope. Also includes Galileo's initial sketches of the surface of the moon.
The edge of a cloud is at an altitude of 20 degrees and the sun above it at 35 degrees. The shadow cast by the edge of the cloud fall on a object 2300 yards away, how high is the cloud?
Two cog-wheels, one having 26 cogs, and the other 20 cogs, run together. In how many revolutions of the larger wheel will the smaller gain in 12 revolutions?
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
After a terrible battle it is found that 70% of the soldiers have lost an eye.
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.

The copybooks of two young men reveal very different purposes in learning geometry.

In baking a hemispherical loaf of bread of 10" radius, the crust was everywhere of an equal thickness, and the solidity of the crust was equal to half the solid content of the whole loaf. What were the dimensions of the interior soft part?
An analysis of James Gregory's proof of the Pappus-Guldin theorem, along with the original documents both in Latin and English.
Make of 10 three parts such that one part multiplied by 3 makes as much as the other multiplied by 4 and as the other multiplied by 5.