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2007 marks the three hundredth anniversary of the birth of Leonhard Euler, the most prolific mathematician of all time. There are numerous events throughout the world celebrating this anniversary, many of which are listed here.
Now a good horse and an inferior horse set out from Chang'an to Qi. Qi is 3000 li from Chang'an.

Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions

This is page 167 from the Exercitationes mathematicae (1657) of Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). This book contained a collection of mathematical construction problems, among much else. It was one of the books read by Isaac Newton while he was a student at Cambridge University and helped to introduce him to modern mathematics. On this page we see a construction enabling one to find the distance across a river.
A wonderful survey of the history of mathematics, emphasizing its relationship with the ambient culture.
The purchase price for an apple and an orange is 100 yen. When n oranges and n + 3 apples are bought the price is 520 yen. Find the number n of oranges and the price of one orange.
A compilation of ethnomathematical ideas from around the world.
There is a circle from within which a square is cut, the remaining portion having an area of 47.6255 square units.
A farmer sold a team of horses for $440, but did not receive his pay for them until 1 yr, 8 mo after the sale. He had at the same time another offer of $410 for them. Did he gain or lose by the sale and by how much, money being worth 6%/yr?
A song for Pi Day.