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The Arithmetic of Boethius (480-524) dates from the early sixth century. This page is from a mansucript (Plimpton MS 165) that dates from approximately 1294, written on vellum.
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
If an arc of 45 degrees on one circumference is equal to an arc of 60 degrees on another circle, what is the ratio of the areas of the circle?
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. How many did he have?
A man entered an orchard through 7 gates, and there took a certain number of apples. When he left the orchard, he gave the first guard half the apples he had and 1 apple more.
Several historical ideas of calculus, including curve sketching and optimization, explored using interactive applets and Geometers Sketchpad.

Images of the first printed edition of Euclid's Elements

A description of this well-regarded website.
A new history of mathematics in ancient Mesopotamia, concentrating on its social aspects.
Now there are 100 deers [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.