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An introduction to the prime numbers in many of their aspects.

Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
A lion, a wolf and a fox each take a certain amount of time to eat a goat separately. How long would it take all these animals together to eat the goat?
What proportions of sugar at 8 cents, 10 cents and 14 cents per pound, will compose a mixture worth 12 cents per pound?

Images from Frans van Schooten's 1659 edition of The Geometry of Rene Descartes

A carpenter has undertaken to build a house in 20 days. He takes on another man and says; "If we build the house together, we can accomplish the work in 8 days!" How long would it take this other man to build the house working alone?
Determine the greatest cylinder that can be inscribed in a given cone.
There are many historical sessions during the 2007 summer meeting of the Mathematical Association of America.
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
Three persons bought a sugar loaf in the form of a perfect cone 25"" high and agreed to divide it...what was the slant height of each one's share?