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A detailed study of the cycles of the Mayan calendar, along with some other ancient calendars.

Circular Images
What is the value of X...
It is required to determine whether 30 horses can be put into 7 stalls; so that in every stall there may be, either a single horse, or an odd number of horses.
The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".
A vessel is anchored in 3 fathoms of water and the cable passes over a sheave in the bowspirt which is 6 ft above the water.
Historical Problems can be used to enliven any mathematics class. Here are some examples from medieval times, from a 19th century American textbook, and from a 19th century Armenian textbook, among other sources.

A man, woman, and two boys desire to cross a river, but their boat has weight restrictions!

Three images from Kepler's 1609 Astronomia Nova, the text in which he introduced his first two laws of planetary motion

I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.