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The first page of Pathway to Knowledge by Robert Recorde (1510-1558). A version of Euclid's Elements, with commentary by Recorde to make it easier to understand. This page includes Euclid's first three postulates.
A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
Find the two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27
A certain bishop ordered that 12 loaves be divided among his clergy.
The story of the negative numbers
I found a stone but did not weigh it; after I added to it 1/7 of its weight and then 1/11 of this new weight, I weighed the total at 1 mina. What was the weight of the stone?

Our reviewer praises the selection of excerpts, the use of facsimiles rather than transcriptions, and the commentary and English translation in this collection.

There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
The Arithmetic of Boethius (480-524) dates from the early sixth century. This page is from a mansucript (Plimpton MS 165) that dates from approximately 1294, written on vellum.
This is the title page of the Siderius Nuncius (Starry Messenger) of Galileo (1564-1642), published in 1610. This book was a report on Galileo's first investigations with a telescope. Also includes Galileo's initial sketches of the surface of the moon.