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Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
A man plants 4 kernels of corn, which at harvest produce 32 kernels: these he plants the second year; now supposing the annual increase to continue 8 fold, what would be the produce of the 15th year, allowing 1000 kernels to a pint?
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?

Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions

There is much to see in this museum related to the history of mathematics.
This is page 167 from the Exercitationes mathematicae (1657) of Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). This book contained a collection of mathematical construction problems, among much else. It was one of the books read by Isaac Newton while he was a student at Cambridge University and helped to introduce him to modern mathematics. On this page we see a construction enabling one to find the distance across a river.
A tree 100 units high is 200 units distant from a well; from this tree one monkey climbs down and goes to the well...
How much does Landowner A give to each worker knowing Landowner B gives a certain amount more and has few workers.
Knowing the base, b, and the altitude, a, of a triangle. Find the expression for a side of the inscribed square.