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This book explores the history of mathematics from the perspective of the creative tension between common sense and the "impossible" as the author follows the discovery or invention of new concepts that have marked mathematical progress.

This is from a letter of June, 1695 in which Leibniz is discussing differentiation with Johann Bernoulli. The work in which these letters appear is the Virorum Celeberr. Got. Gul. Leibnitii et Johann Bernoulli Commercium Philosophicum et Mathematica, originally published in 1740.
One says that 10 is divided into three parts and if the small part is multiplied by itself and added to the middle one multiplied by itself the result is the large one multiplied by itself...
Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By looking at the line of vision, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.
If in a circle ABDC, circumscribe an equilateral triangle ABC; the straight line AD is equal to the sum of the two straight lines BD and DC: required a demonstration.
There were two men, of whom the first had 3 small loaves of bread and the other, 2.
Several historical ideas of calculus, including curve sketching and optimization, explored using interactive applets and Geometers Sketchpad.

The author shows how teachers can use Leonhard Euler's original works in the classroom to explore Euler's famous polyhedral formula,
V + F = E + 2.

A description of this well-regarded website.
Given four integers where if added together three at a time their sums are: 20, 22, 24, and 27. What are the integers?