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An introduction to the prime numbers in many of their aspects.

Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
What proportions of sugar at 8 cents, 10 cents and 14 cents per pound, will compose a mixture worth 12 cents per pound?

Images from Frans van Schooten's 1659 edition of The Geometry of Rene Descartes

The edge of a cloud is at an altitude of 20 degrees and the sun above it at 35 degrees. The shadow cast by the edge of the cloud fall on a object 2300 yards away, how high is the cloud?
Determine the greatest cylinder that can be inscribed in a given cone.
Suppose that for every 4 cows a farmer has, he should plow 1 acre of land, and allow 1 acre of pasture for every 3 cows; how many cows could he keep on 140 acres?
There are many historical sessions during the 2007 summer meeting of the Mathematical Association of America.
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
The dimensions of a rectangular box in inches are expressed by three consecutive numbers. The surface of the box is 292 square inches. Find the dimensions.