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Author Keith Devlin argues that the impact of the Pisan merchant and his Arabic numbers on medieval Europe was even greater than previously thought.

This is the title page of the first textbook in the calculus of variations, Leonhard Euler's Method of Finding Curved Lines that Show some Property of Maximum or Minimum. It was published in 1744.
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
If 40 oranges are worth 60 apples, and 75 apples are worth 7 dozen peaches, and 100 peaches are worth 1 box of grapes and three boxes of grapes are worth 40 pounds of pecans, how many peaches can be bought for 100 oranges?
A set of four congruent circles whose centers form a square is inscribed in a right triangle ABC where C is the right angle and serves as one corner of the square. Find their radius in terms of the sides; a,b,c, of the triangle.
Three equal circumferences with radii 6" are tangent to each other. Compute the area enclosed between them.
Prove geometrically that the hypocycloid is a straight line when the radius of the rolling circle is one-half the radius of the fixed circle.
Given the frustum of a circular cone with height h.

Review of a book that suggests that the accepted historical chronology is fundamentally flawed.

Here is the title page of part I of the General Trattato di Numeri (General Treatise on Number and Measure) (1556) of Niccolo Tartaglia (1500-1557). This is an extensive work on elementary mathematics that was popular in Italy for several decades after its publication.