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In this article which won the 2005 prize of HOMSIGMAA, the author discusses Eratosthenes' argument to determine the size of the earth as well as possibilities for the size which Eratosthenes found (in modern measures).
A merchant gave a university 2,814 ducats on the understanding that he was to be paid back 618 ducats per year for 9 years, at the end of which the 2,814 ducats should be considered as paid.
An English translation of Eratosthenes' Geography, which includes "On the Measurement of the Earth."
The history of apportionment of representatives in the U.S. Congress, from the 1790s until today, along with a discussion of the mathematics involved in the various methods.
Two cog-wheels, one having 26 cogs, and the other 20 cogs, run together. In how many revolutions of the larger wheel will the smaller gain in 12 revolutions?
After a terrible battle it is found that 70% of the soldiers have lost an eye.
A man went to a draper and bought a length of cloth 35 braccia long to make a suit of clothes.
There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
One says that 10 garments were purchased by two men at a price of 72 dirhams. The garments varied in value. The price of each garment of one man is 3 dirhams more than the price for each garment of the other. How many garments did each man buy?

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