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Find the area of the elliptical segment cut off parallel to the shorter axis;
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?

Author Keith Devlin argues that the impact of the Pisan merchant and his Arabic numbers on medieval Europe was even greater than previously thought.

A cylindrical tin tomato can is to be made which shall have a given capacity. Find what should be the ratio of the height to the radius of the base that the smallest possible amount of tin shall be required.
This is the title page of the first textbook in the calculus of variations, Leonhard Euler's Method of Finding Curved Lines that Show some Property of Maximum or Minimum. It was published in 1744.