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Mathematics is often referred to today as the "science of patterns." But has this always been true historically, or is this something that happened in recent times? The question is discussed here with reference to the work of Euclid and Jacob Steiner.
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
Prove geometrically that the hypocycloid is a straight line when the radius of the rolling circle is one-half the radius of the fixed circle.
The highest point of the Andes is about 4 miles above sea level.
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
Heron of Alexandria (ca 200) wrote on many aspects of applied mathematics.

Author Keith Devlin argues that the impact of the Pisan merchant and his Arabic numbers on medieval Europe was even greater than previously thought.

A man plants 4 kernels of corn, which at harvest produce 32 kernels: these he plants the second year; now supposing the annual increase to continue 8 fold, what would be the produce of the 15th year, allowing 1000 kernels to a pint?
This is the title page of the first textbook in the calculus of variations, Leonhard Euler's Method of Finding Curved Lines that Show some Property of Maximum or Minimum. It was published in 1744.
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?