This is the Tree of Proportions and Proportionality from the De Divina Proportione of Luca Pacioli (1445 - 1509), published in 1509. (Convergence has published Leonardo Da Vinci's woodcuts, which appeared as illustrations in this book.) Some of the terms in Pacioli's tree are familiar today and some are taken from the study of proportions by Nicomachus in his Arithmetic, but the meanings of some other terms are not generally known. It would be a worthwhile project to go through the tree and decipher the meanings of all of the terms in it.
One image from De Divina Proportione of a stellated dodecahedron