This is the title page of the Nova Scientia (1537) of Niccolo Tartaglia (1499-1557). In this work, Tartaglia discussed the mathematics of artillery and developed methods for determining the range of a cannon. The caption below the illustration reads, "The Mathematical sciences speak: Who wishes to know the various causes of things, learn about us. The way is open to all." The illustration itself depicts a walled compound, the compound of knowlege. The high wall keeps out the man who attempts to scale it and enter improperly. Entrance into the compound is through a single door opened by Euclid. In the first courtyard, a crowd comprised of Tartaglia and the muses of the seven liberal arts watch a demonstration of Tartaglia's new knowlege, a theory of trajectories. Beyond the first courtyard is a second smaller, more exclusive and highly elevated one. Its entrance is manned by Aristotle and Plato. Plato holds a banner proclaiming, "No one can enter who does not know geometry." Enthroned at the rear of this compound, in the highest position of all, is philosophy.
On this page (f. 29v), we see a method of determining the height of a distant object using a quadrant.