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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

X, Y and Z hired a pasture for the season for $90.00. Each has a different number of mules and are on the pasture for a different number of days. How much is each to pay?
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.
Two men rent a pasture for 100 liras on the understanding that two cows are to be counted as being equivalent to three sheep. The first puts in 60 cows and 85 sheep; the second 80 cows and 100 sheep. How much should each pay?

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