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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A wooden log is encased in a wall. If we cut part of the wall away to a depth of 1 inch...
Three persons bought a sugar loaf in the form of a perfect cone 25"" high and agreed to divide it...what was the slant height of each one's share?
You have two sums of money, the difference of which is 2 dirhams; you divide the smaller sum by the larger and the quotient is equal to 1/2. What are the two sums of money?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the length of those sides.
An old Chinese general led his army to a river with a steep bank. Standing atop the bank, he held a stick 6 feet long perpendicular to himself.
A mouse is at the top of a poplar tree 60 braccia high, and a cat is on the ground at its foot. The mouse decends 1/2 a braccia a day and at night it turns back 1/6 of a braccia.
Make a crown of gold copper, tin, and iron weighing 60 minae: gold and copper shall be 2/3 of it; gold and tin, 3/4 of it; and gold and iron, 3/5 of it. Find the required weights of gold, copper, tin, and iron.
Prove geometrically that the hypocycloid is a straight line when the radius of the rolling circle is one-half the radius of the fixed circle.
If a ladder, placed 8 ft. from the base of a building 40 ft. high, just reached the top, how far must it be placed from the base of the building that it may reach a point 10 ft. from the top?