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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?
The sum of two numbers is 10 and their product is 40. What are the numbers?
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
Find a number having remainder 29 when divided by 30 and remainder 3 when divided by 4.