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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The purchase price for an apple and an orange is 100 yen. When n oranges and n + 3 apples are bought the price is 520 yen. Find the number n of oranges and the price of one orange.
There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
Determine the dimensions of the least isosceles triangle ACD that can circumscribe a given circle.
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
Given four numbers whose sum is 9900; the second exceeds the first by 1/7 of the first...
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
A man, woman, and two boys desire to cross a river, but their boat has weight restrictions!