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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Now a pile of rice is against a wall, it has a base perimeter of 60 feet and a height of 12 feet.
The king of France entered into a battle and was defeated. How many soldiers did he have before he was defeated?
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
Three circles of varying radius are mutually tangent. The area of the triangle connecting their centers is given. Find the radius of the third circle.
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
A number is required; that the square shall be equal to twice the cube.
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
The sum of two numbers is 10 and their product is 40. What are the numbers?