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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A circle is inscribed in an isosceles trapezoid. Find the relationship of the radius to the sides.
A carpenter has undertaken to build a house in 20 days. He takes on another man and says; "If we build the house together, we can accomplish the work in 8 days!" How long would it take this other man to build the house working alone?
Suppose the area of an equilateral triangle be 600. The sides are required.
A certain gentleman ordered that 90 measures of grain were to be transported from his house to another, 30 leucas distant.
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. How many did he have?
A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
Given a pendulum as shown. The height of the pendulum is two units and its horizontal width is 2 units. What is the area of the pendulum?
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?