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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Three people buy wood together. One pays the merchant 5 coins, another 3 coins, and the last 2 coins.
How high above the earth must a person be raised that he [or she] may see 1/3 of its surface?
Two men start walking at the same time and travel a distance. One is walking faster and completes the journey sooner. How fast did each man travel?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Find two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27.
There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
A merchant gave a university 2,814 ducats on the understanding that he was to be paid back 618 ducats per year for 9 years, at the end of which the 2,814 ducats should be considered as paid.
Find two numbers, x and y, such that their sum is 10 and x/y + y/x = 25
What is the sum of the reciprocals of the triangular numbers?
The cavity of our chimney is an upright parallelepiped, the diagonal of whose base is 60"; and the height of the lower side of the lintel above the plane of the floor is 40".