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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
A man has four creditors. To the first he owes 624 ducats; to the second, 546; to the third, 492; and to the fourth 368.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
A man bought a number of sheep for $225; 10 of them having died, he sold 4/5 of the remainder for the same cost and received $150 for them. How many did he buy?
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?
A barrel has various holes in it. The fist hole empties the barrel in three days...
A set of n disjoint, congruent circles packs the surface of a sphere S so that each region of the surface exterior to the circles is bounded by arcs of three of the circles.
Determine the different values of x, when a certain function hits a minimum.
An oracle ordered a prince to build a sacred building, whose space would be 400 cubits, the length being 6 cubits more than the width, and the width 3 cubits more than the height. Find the dimensions of the building.
Given a door and a measuring rod of unknown dimensions, the rod is used to measure the door.