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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A gentleman has bought a rectangular piece of land whose perimeter is to be 100 rods.
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when its angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers at the same time...
When knowing the sum of their ages along with another equation, determine how old a father and son are.
A number is required; that the square shall be equal to twice the cube.
A leech invited a slug for a lunch a leuca away.
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?
Chuquet claimed that if given positive numbers a, b, c, d then (a + b) / (c + d) lies between a/c and b/d. Is he correct? Prove your answer
The sum of two numbers is 10 and their product is 40. What are the numbers?
Determine a number having remainders 2, 3, 2 when divided by 3, 5, 7 respectively.
In baking a hemispherical loaf of bread of 10" radius, the crust was everywhere of an equal thickness, and the solidity of the crust was equal to half the solid content of the whole loaf. What were the dimensions of the interior soft part?