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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A wooden log is encased in a wall. If we cut part of the wall away to a depth of 1 inch...
You have two sums of money, the difference of which is 2 dirhams; you divide the smaller sum by the larger and the quotient is equal to 1/2. What are the two sums of money?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
An old Chinese general led his army to a river with a steep bank. Standing atop the bank, he held a stick 6 feet long perpendicular to himself.
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the length of those sides.
Make a crown of gold copper, tin, and iron weighing 60 minae: gold and copper shall be 2/3 of it; gold and tin, 3/4 of it; and gold and iron, 3/5 of it. Find the required weights of gold, copper, tin, and iron.
A mouse is at the top of a poplar tree 60 braccia high, and a cat is on the ground at its foot. The mouse decends 1/2 a braccia a day and at night it turns back 1/6 of a braccia.
If a ladder, placed 8 ft. from the base of a building 40 ft. high, just reached the top, how far must it be placed from the base of the building that it may reach a point 10 ft. from the top?
Prove geometrically that the hypocycloid is a straight line when the radius of the rolling circle is one-half the radius of the fixed circle.
Assume that the human population after the flood was 6 and that 200 years later the population was 1,000,000. Find the annual growth of the population.