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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A farmer sold a team of horses for $440, but did not receive his pay for them until 1 yr, 8 mo after the sale. He had at the same time another offer of $410 for them. Did he gain or lose by the sale and by how much, money being worth 6%/yr?
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
Given a pendulum as shown. The height of the pendulum is two units and its horizontal width is 2 units. What is the area of the pendulum?
X, Y and Z hired a pasture for the season for $90.00. Each has a different number of mules and are on the pasture for a different number of days. How much is each to pay?
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.