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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
I was employed to survey a field, which I was told was an exact geometrical square, but by reason of a river running through it, I can only obtain partial measurements.
A ladder has 100 steps. On the first step sits 1 pigeon; on the second, 2; on the third, 3; and so on up to the hundredth. How many pigeons in all?
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.
A teacher agreed to teach 9 months for $562.50 and his board. At the end of the term, on account of two months absence caused by sickness, he received only $409.50. What was his board worth per month?
Find the isoceles triangle of smallest area that circumscribes a circle of radius 1.
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
Rabbits and pheasants are put in a basket.
In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is 9.434 and the sum of the sides around the right angle is 13. Find the lengths of the sides around the right angle.