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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
There is a right triangle where: the sum of the upright multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 700 units; and, the sum of the base multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 900 units.
Two wine merchants enter Paris, one of them with 64 casks of wine, the other with 20.
Three men wish to buy a horse but none have a sufficient amount of money for the purchase; to do so they must borrow from each other. How much money does each man have and what is the price of the horse?
The three sides of a triangular piece of land, taken in order, measure 15, 10, and 13 chains respectively.
What is the perpendicular height of a cloud when it's angles of elevation were 35 degrees and 64 degrees as taken by two observers?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
How much does Landowner A give to each worker knowing Landowner B gives a certain amount more and has few workers.
After a terrible battle it is found that 70% of the soldiers have lost an eye.
Problems from a 15th century French manuscript, including one with negative solutions