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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
A cylindrical tin tomato can is to be made which shall have a given capacity. Find what should be the ratio of the height to the radius of the base that the smallest possible amount of tin shall be required.
One says that 10 is divided into three parts and if the small part is multiplied by itself and added to the middle one multiplied by itself the result is the large one multiplied by itself...
A round pond sits in a rectangular garden. Its center is inaccessible; however, you know the distances from each corner of the garden to the center of the pond: 60, 52, 28, and 40 yards. What is the radius of the pond?
Show that the curves x2 - y2 = a2 and 2 xy = b2 cross at right angles.
A circle is inscribed in an isosceles trapezoid. Find the relationship of the radius to the sides.
The highest point of the Andes is about 4 miles above sea level.
A carpenter has undertaken to build a house in 20 days. He takes on another man and says; "If we build the house together, we can accomplish the work in 8 days!" How long would it take this other man to build the house working alone?
In order to encourage his son in the study of arithmetic, a father agrees to pay him 8 pennies for every problem solved correctly and to charge him 5 pennies for each incorrect solution.