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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a garden is the shape of a rhombus whose side is 768.52 feet. Within the garden is an inscribed square flower bed whose side is 396 feet. What is the area of the garden?
A California miner has a spherical ball of gold, 2 inches in diamter, which he wants to exchange for spherical balls 1 inch in diameter. How many of the smaller spheres should he receive?
The sum of two numbers is 10 and their product is 40. What are the numbers?
The purchase price for an apple and an orange is 100 yen. When n oranges and n + 3 apples are bought the price is 520 yen. Find the number n of oranges and the price of one orange.
In baking a hemispherical loaf of bread of 10" radius, the crust was everywhere of an equal thickness, and the solidity of the crust was equal to half the solid content of the whole loaf. What were the dimensions of the interior soft part?
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
Given a triangular piece of land having two sides 10 yards in length and its base 12 yards, what is the largest square that can be constructed within this piece of land so that one of its sides lies along the base of the triangle?
Determine the dimensions of the least isosceles triangle ACD that can circumscribe a given circle.
What is the sum of the following series, carried to infinity: 11, 11/7, 11/49, etc.?
Given four numbers whose sum is 9900; the second exceeds the first by 1/7 of the first...