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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Determine by using algebra the number of degrees in the angle A where: cos A = tan A
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?
Two men starting from the same point begin walking in different directions. Their rates of travel are in the ratio 7:3.
Three men have a pile of money, their shares being 1/2, 1/3 and 1/6. Each man takes some money from the pile until nothing is left.
A person has a circular yard that is 150 ft. in diameter, and wishes a walk of equal width made round it within the fence...