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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

What will the diameter of a sphere be, when its volume and surface area are expressed by the same number?
X, Y and Z hired a pasture for the season for $90.00. Each has a different number of mules and are on the pasture for a different number of days. How much is each to pay?
A man has four creditors. To the first he owes 624 ducats; to the second, 546; to the third, 492; and to the fourth 368.
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
A man bought a number of sheep for $225; 10 of them having died, he sold 4/5 of the remainder for the same cost and received $150 for them. How many did he buy?
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.
A barrel has various holes in it. The fist hole empties the barrel in three days...
As for a square piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits, if it is said to you, "Cause it to make a piece of land that amounts to 100 square cubits that is round," what is the required diameter?
Determine the different values of x, when a certain function hits a minimum.
There is a regular pentagon. The length of its side is a. Find the area of the pentagon. Generalize your result for a nonagon.