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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
There is a tree with 100 branches. How many nests, eggs and birds are there?
Two men starting from the same point begin walking in different directions. Their rates of travel are in the ratio 7:3.
A copper water tank in the form of a rectangular parallelopiped is to made. If its length is to be a times its breadth, how high should it be that for a given capacity it should cost as little as possible?
A ladder is placed perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, and in coincidence with the plane of an upright wall.
The cost per hour of running a certain steamboat is proportional to the cube of its velocity in still water. At what speed should it be run to make a trip up stream against a four-mile current most economically?
Divide 100 loaves of bread among 10 men including a boatman, a foreman, and a doorkeeper, who receives double portions. What is the share of each?
Two wine merchants enter Paris, one of them with 64 casks of wine, the other with 20.
The three sides of a triangular piece of land, taken in order, measure 15, 10, and 13 chains respectively.
A set of n disjoint, congruent circles packs the surface of a sphere S so that each region of the surface exterior to the circles is bounded by arcs of three of the circles.