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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
If in a circle ABDC, circumscribe an equilateral triangle ABC; the straight line AD is equal to the sum of the two straight lines BD and DC: required a demonstration.
A cat sitting on a wall 4 cubits high saw a rat prowling 8 cubits from the foot of the wall;
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
A square circumscribed about a given circle is double in area to a square inscribed in the same circle. True of false? Prove your answer.
Given a guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind. The host discovers them after 1/3 day, and he starts out with the clothes.
Twenty-three weary travelers entered a delightful forest. There they found 63 numerically equal piles of plantain fruit.
A certain bishop ordered that 12 loaves be divided among his clergy.