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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A circle is inscribed in an isosceles trapezoid. Find the relationship of the radius to the sides.
A carpenter has undertaken to build a house in 20 days. He takes on another man and says; "If we build the house together, we can accomplish the work in 8 days!" How long would it take this other man to build the house working alone?
A water tub holds 73 gallons; the pipe which fills it usually admits 7 gallons in 5 minutes; and the tap discharges 20 gallons in 17 minutes.
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. How many did he have?
A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
In how many ways can a vowel and a consonant be chosen out of the word "logarithms?"
Having been given the lengths, a and b, of two straight lines drawn from the acute angles of a right triangle to the middle of the opposite sides, determine the lengths of those sides.
There is a fish whose body weighs 8oz. Tell me how much the whole fish weighs?