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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
Gun metal of a certain grade is composed of 16% tin and 84% copper. How much tin must be added to 410 lbs. of this gun metal to make a composition of 18% tin?
Now there are six-headed four legged animals and four-headed two-legged birds. Find the total number of animals and birds.
Now there are 100 deers [being distributed] in a city. If one household has one deer there is a remainder...Find the number of households in the city.
Suppose the area of an equilateral triangle be 600. The sides are required.
A certain gentleman ordered that 90 measures of grain were to be transported from his house to another, 30 leucas distant.
A guest on horseback rides 300 li in a day. The guest leaves his clothes behind and the host rides off to catch up with the guest once he discovers the clothes. Assuming the host rides without stop tell how far he can go in a day?
I have two fields of grain. From the first field I harvest 2/3 a bushel of grain/unit area; from the second, 1/2 bushel/unit area.
Given a pendulum as shown. The height of the pendulum is two units and its horizontal width is 2 units. What is the area of the pendulum?
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...