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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Two officers each have a company of men, the one has 40 less than the other.
Assume that the human population after the flood was 6 and that 200 years later the population was 1,000,000. Find the annual growth of the population.
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is 9.434 and the sum of the sides around the right angle is 13. Find the lengths of the sides around the right angle.
A four-sided town measures 1100 feet on one side and 1000 feet on the other side, on one edge 600 and the other edge 600.
Four men already having denari found a purse of denari; each man has a different amount of denari before they found the purse. Find out how much denari each man has.
A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
A gentleman has bought a rectangular piece of land whose perimeter is to be 100 rods; and he is to pay 1 dollar for each rod in the length of the land and 3 dollars for each rod in the breath of the land.
Find a number having remainder 29 when divided by 30 and remainder 3 when divided by 4.
How long does it take a single man to do work when...