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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Gun metal of a certain grade is composed of 16% tin and 84% copper. How much tin must be added to 410 lbs. of this gun metal to make a composition of 18% tin?
Prove geometrically that the hypocycloid is a straight line when the radius of the rolling circle is one-half the radius of the fixed circle.
Now there are six-headed four legged animals and four-headed two-legged birds. Find the total number of animals and birds.
The third part of a necklace of pearls, broken in a lover's quarrel, fell to the ground...
Given the fraction ax/ (a-x ), convert it into an infinite series.
Seven men held equal shares in a grinding stone 5 feet in diameter. What part of the diameter should each grind away?
A two door gate of unknown width is opened so that a 2 inch gap exists between the two doors.
Given a pyramid 300 cubits high, with a square base 500 cubits to a side, determine the distance from the center of any side to the apex.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
In a rectangle, having given the diagonal and perimeter, find the sides