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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
How a translation of Peano's counterexample to the 'theorem' that a zero Wronskian implies linear dependence can help your differential equations students
A merchant gave a university 2,814 ducats on the understanding that he was to be paid back 618 ducats per year for 9 years, at the end of which the 2,814 ducats should be considered as paid.
Now there are six-headed four-legged animals and four-headed two-legged birds placed together.
It is required to determine whether 30 horses can be put into 7 stalls; so that in every stall there may be, either a single horse, or an odd number of horses.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
One says that 10 garments were purchased by two men at a price of 72 dirhams. The garments varied in value. The price of each garment of one man is 3 dirhams more than the price for each garment of the other. How many garments did each man buy?
Two men brought their fish through customs. Find how much the fish cost, and what is the customs fee.
There are two columns in the ruins of Persepolis left standing upright; one is 70 ft. above the plane, and the other 50 ft;
If 12 cattle eat up 3 1/3 acres of meadow in 4 weeks and 21 cattle eat up 10 acres of exactly similar meadow in 9 weeks, how many cattle shall eat up 36 acres in 18 weeks? (Hint: The grass continues to grow.)