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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
In a circle whose circumference is 60 units, a chord is drawn forming a segment whose sagitta is 2 units. What is the length of the chord?
A merchant gave a university 2,814 ducats on the understanding that he was to be paid back 618 ducats per year for 9 years, at the end of which the 2,814 ducats should be considered as paid.
It is required to determine whether 30 horses can be put into 7 stalls; so that in every stall there may be, either a single horse, or an odd number of horses.
A man is walking across a bridge, when a boat passes under the bridge.How rapidly are the boat and the pedestrian separating after the boat passes under the bridge?
One says that 10 garments were purchased by two men at a price of 72 dirhams. The garments varied in value. The price of each garment of one man is 3 dirhams more than the price for each garment of the other. How many garments did each man buy?
One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
There are two columns in the ruins of Persepolis left standing upright; one is 70 ft. above the plane, and the other 50 ft;
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
If 12 cattle eat up 3 1/3 acres of meadow in 4 weeks and 21 cattle eat up 10 acres of exactly similar meadow in 9 weeks, how many cattle shall eat up 36 acres in 18 weeks? (Hint: The grass continues to grow.)

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