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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A lady has two silver cups, and only one cover for both. The first cup weighs 16 oz, and when it is covered it weighs 3 times as much as the second cup; but when the second cup is covered, it weighs 4 times as much as the first.
A certain merchant increases the value of his estate by 1/3...
Make of 10 three parts such that one part multiplied by 3 makes as much as the other multiplied by 4 and as the other multiplied by 5.
Find the greatest value of y in the equation a4 x2= (x2 + y2)3.
A square walled city of unknown dimensions has four gates, one at the center of each side.
X, Y and Z hired a pasture for the season for $90.00. Each has a different number of mules and are on the pasture for a different number of days. How much is each to pay?
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
There are two piles, one containing 9 gold coins, the other 11 silver coins.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.