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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

One person possesses 7 asavas horses, another 9 hayas horses, and another 9 camels. Each gives two animals away, one to each of the others.
A fellow said that when he counted his nuts by twos, threes, fours, fives and sixes, there was still one left over; but when he counted them by sevens they came out even. How many did he have?
A general formed his men into a square, that is, an equal number in rank and file, and he found that he had an excess of 59 men.
There are two numbers whose sum equals the difference of their squares.
A certain gentleman ordered that 90 measures of grain were to be transported from his house to another, 30 leucas distant.
A farmer sold a team of horses for $440, but did not receive his pay for them until 1 yr, 8 mo after the sale. He had at the same time another offer of $410 for them. Did he gain or lose by the sale and by how much, money being worth 6%/yr?
There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
Given a pendulum as shown. The height of the pendulum is two units and its horizontal width is 2 units. What is the area of the pendulum?
I wish to find three numbers of such nature that the first and the second with 1/2 of the third makes 20...
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?

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