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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Suppose General [George] Washington had 800 men and was supplied with provisions to last 2 months but he needed to feed his army for 7 months.
A lady has two silver cups, and only one cover for both. The first cup weighs 16 oz, and when it is covered it weighs 3 times as much as the second cup; but when the second cup is covered, it weighs 4 times as much as the first.
Make of 10 three parts such that one part multiplied by 3 makes as much as the other multiplied by 4 and as the other multiplied by 5.
Show that the curves x2 - y2 = a2 and 2 xy = b2 cross at right angles.
Two men have a certain amount of money. The first says to the second, "If you give me 5 denari, I will have 7 times what you have left."
X, Y and Z hired a pasture for the season for $90.00. Each has a different number of mules and are on the pasture for a different number of days. How much is each to pay?
A horse, halving its speed each day, travels 700 miles in 7 days. How far does it travel each day?
If I were to give 7 pennies to each beggar at my door, I would have 24 pennies left in my purse. How many beggars are there and how much money do I have?
A horse halving its speed every day runs 700 miles in 7 days.
A rifle ball is fired through a three-inch plank, the resistance of which causes an unknown constant retardation of its velocity.