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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Given right triangle ABC where C is the right angle, ellipse O (a,b) is inscribed in it, with its major axis parallel to BC. Calculate the semi-major axis, a, in terms of AC, BC and b.
My age is a number consisting of two digits, 1/2 of this number is a mean proportional between these two digits, and two years hence, my age will be a third proportional to the same two digits, directly as they stand in my present age.
Thirty flasks-10 full, 10 half-empty, and 10 completely empty- are to be divided among 3 sons so that flasks and contents should be shared equally. How may this be done?
The perimeters of two similar triangles are 45 and 135 respectively. One side of the first triangle has length 11″ and a second side, 19″. Find the lengths of the sides of the second triangle.
There are four companies, in one of which there are 6 men, in another 8, and in each of the remaining two, 9 men. How many ways can a committee of 4 men be composed by choosing one man from each company?
What is the value of X...
Given a rectangle, find the line through one vertex of minimum length that passes through the extensions of the two opposite sides.
On a day in spring a boy has gathered cherry blossoms under a cherry tree. Nearby a poet is reading some of his poems aloud. As he reads, the boy counts out the cherry blossoms, one blossom for each word of a poem.
There is a right triangle where: the sum of the upright multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 700 units; and, the sum of the base multiplied by itself twice and the hypotenuse multiplied by itself is 900 units.