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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

The sum of the two digits of a 2-digit number is 9. If 45 is subtracted from the number, the result will be expressed by the digits in reverse order. Find the number.
A farmer sold a team of horses for $440, but did not receive his pay for them until 1 yr, 8 mo after the sale. He had at the same time another offer of $410 for them. Did he gain or lose by the sale and by how much, money being worth 6%/yr?
To find three quantities x.y, and z...
There is a lion in a well whose depth is 50 palms. He climbs and slips back a certain amount each day. In how many days will he get out of the well?
There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?
Suppose a ladder 60 feet long is placed in a street so as to reach a window 37 feet above the ground on one side of the street...
A father wills his estate valued at $40, 000 to his three children. Before the settlement one of the children dies. What should the other two receive?
Of the two water reeds, the one grows 3 feet and the other 1 foot on the first day. The growth of the first becomes every day half of that of the preceding day, while the other grows twice as much as on the day before.
Twenty-three weary travelers entered a delightful forest. There they found 63 numerically equal piles of plantain fruit.
A certain bishop ordered that 12 loaves be divided among his clergy.

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