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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Find the two numbers such that multiplying one by the other makes 8 and the sum of their squares is 27
Determine by using algebra the number of degrees in the angle A where: cos A = tan A
On an expedition to seize his enemy's elephants, a king marched 2 yojanas the first day.
How high above the earth must a person be raised that he [or she] may see 1/3 of its surface?
Two men start walking at the same time and travel a distance. One is walking faster and completes the journey sooner. How fast did each man travel?
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
One military horse cannot pull a load of 40 dan; neither can 2 ordinary horses, nor can three inferior horses.
There is a log of precious wood 18 feet long whose bases are 5 feet and 2.5 feet in circumference. Into what lengths should the log be cut to trisect its volume?
A merchant gave a university 2,814 ducats on the understanding that he was to be paid back 618 ducats per year for 9 years, at the end of which the 2,814 ducats should be considered as paid.
Three men have a pile of money, their shares being 1/2, 1/3 and 1/6. Each man takes some money from the pile until nothing is left.