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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

An official asks a woman why she has so many bowls to wash. The woman explains that she had dinner guests who ate meat, rice, and soup. Judging by the number of bowls, how many guests were there?
A man agreed to pay for 13 valuable houses worth $5000 each, what the last would amount to, reckoning 7 cents for the first, 4 times 7 cents for the second, and so on, increasing the price 4 times on each to the last.
A father left $20,000 to be divided among his four sons ages 6, 8, 10, and 12 years respectively so that each share placed at 4 1/2 compounded interest should amount to the same value when its possessor becomes the age 21.
Two bicyclists travel in opposite directions around a quarter-mile track and meet every 22 seconds. When they travel in the same direction on this track, the faster passes the slower once every 3 minutes and 40 seconds. Find the rate of each rider
Having been given the perimeter and perpendicular of a right angled triangle, it is required to find the triangle.
Given a right triangle where you know the length of the base and the sum of the perpendicular side and the hypotenuse.

If 40 oranges are worth 60 apples, and 75 apples are worth 7 dozen peaches, and 100 peaches are worth 1 box of grapes and three boxes of grapes are worth 40 pounds of pecans, how many peaches can be bought for 100 oranges?
A water tub holds 73 gallons; the pipe which fills it usually admits 7 gallons in 5 minutes; and the tap discharges 20 gallons in 17 minutes.
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
One hundred men besieged in a castle, have sufficient food to allow each one bread to the weight of 14 lot a day for ten months.